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Full text of "The Naturalist's Pocket Magazine or compleat cabinet of the curiosities and beauties of nature"

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naturalist's pocket 





















Printed for HARJIISON, CLUSE, and Co. 
N'' 78, Fleet Street. 


INDEX. /^^^^^i^E 


NGEL lish. 
\ngler, Common. 
\nt-Eater, Little. 
\ntelope, White- 
\rbutus, or Straw- 
. berry Tree. 
Armadillo, Six^Band- 

Banksia Serrata. 
Bee-Eater, Indian. 
Beetle, Goat. 

, Morron. 

■ •, Rhinoceros. 

Bind- Weed, Small. 
Bird of Paradise, 
- Gold- Breasted. 
Bustard, Lidian. 


Deiphobus Butterfly, 
Dobchick, Horned. 
Dormouse, Gilt- , 

Duck, Summer, of* 

Finger Flower of New 

South Wales. 
Fly-Catcher, Yellow 


Fragile Flower, Yel- 

Gentian of the Desartc 


Heron, North Ameri- 
can Ash-Coloured, 


Horned Fish. 

Jerboa, Egyptian. 
King-Fisher, Spotted. 
Leopard, Black. 

Macaw, Blue andYel- 

Manakin, Purple- 
Breasted Blue. 
Maucauco, Flving:. 

Monkey, Lesser Ca- 
gui. ' 

Motli, Emperor, of 
New South Wales. 

Owl, Great Horned. 

X, Grunting. 

Parrot, Blue-Breaste 

Parrot, Green ai 
Red Chinese. 

Pelican, American. 

Pigeon, Great Crow: 
ed Indian. 

Porcupine, Long- 

Pye, Short-Tailed. 

Seal, Pied. 

Shell- Flower, Purpl 


Toucan, Red-Beaket 
Walking- Leaf. 
Walking-Stick In- 

Whistle Insecl. 
Woodbine, Scarlet, c 

New South A\'ale: 
Woodpecker, Jamaic 


naturalist's pocket 






1. The antelope. v <g>iL 







The name Antelope, or Gazell, is given 
by naturalists to a species of animals which 
can neither be referred to the deer nor to the 
goat race, though they partake of the nature 
of both. 

In this tribe of animals there are, according 
to some naturalists, more than forty species ; 
but BufFon only enumerates thirteen, and 
seems inclined rather to consider these as va- 
rieties than as absolutely distindt species. The 
distinguishing chara6lers^ of the Gazell or 
Antelope race are, that their horns are diffe- 
rently constru6led from those of the deer and 
goat families, by being annulated or ringed 
round, at the same time that there are longi- 
tudinal depressions running from the base to 
the apex ; that they have bunches of hair on 
their fore-legs ; a black, red, or brown streak, 
running along the inferior parts of their sides ; 
and three streaks of whitish hair on the inter- 
nal sides of their ears. These arc general cha- 
fa(Slcrs ; but there arc, also, several others, 
» which 


which they commonly possess, and \vhich are 
obvious to every beholder. 

They resemble the goat, and differ from the 
deer, in never shedding their horns ; in having 
a gall bladder ; and in delighting more to 
browze on shrubs than crop grass : yet they are 
like the roe-buck in size, as well as in delicacy 
of conformation ; have deep pits under their 
eyes, like that animal ; and resemble it in the 
nature and colour of their hair, as well as the 
bunches on their leg?, which only vary by 
being on the fore-legs of the Antelope, and on 
the hind-legs of the roe-buck. Thus they ap- 
pear to be of a middle nature ; an intermediate 
link between the goat and the deer : whence it 
is difncult to pronounce, with any precision, 
where the goat ends, cr the deer commences. 

Antelopes mostly inhabit the torrid regions; 
those parts, at least, of the temperate zone, 
which are situated so near the tropics as to 
form a doubtful climate. It is remarkable, 
however, that in no part of the new world, 
not even in South America, the warmth ot 
which must necessarily be well suited to their 



nature, has a single species of the Antelope 
ever been discovered. Their native countries 
seem, therefore, to be Asia and Africa. 

The eyes of the Antelope, which are in ge- 
neral black, arc so extremely brilliant, and at 
the same time of so mild or meek an aspe6t, 
that the oriental poets compare the eyes of 
their mistresses to those of this beautiful qua- 
druped. " Aine el Czazel,'' or " You have 
the eyes of an Antelope," is considered, in the 
East, as the highest compliment that can be 
paid to a fine woman. 

It is usually more delicately formed, and 
more finely limbed, than the roe-buck ; and, 
though it's hair is equally short, it is finer 
and more glossy. It's hind-legs, like those of 
tlie hare, are longer than it's fore-legs ; which 
not only qualify it for extraordinary sv/iftness, 
but afford it greater security than it would 
otherwise have, in ascending and descending 
precipices, a practice to which it seems pecu- 
liarly attached. It's fleetness, in fad, is equal, 
if not superior, to that of the roe-buck; 
though this animal bounds forward, while the 



Antelope runs along in one uninterrupted 
course. It's lightness and elasticity strike 
the beholder with astonishment ; and, what is 
very singular, it will stop in the midst of 
■ it's course, for a moment gaze at it's pur- 
suers, and then resume it's flight. 

Most species of the Antelope are brown on 
the backj and white under the belly ; having 
a black stripe, which separates those colours. 
The tail, which is of various lengths, is al- 
ways seen covered with longish hair ; and the 
cars, Wiiich are beautiful in themselves, and 
pleasingly situated, terminate in a point. 
The liojf is cloven, like that of the sheep ; 
and the horns of tire female are considerably 
{^mailer than those of the male. 

On comparing together the difFerenr species 
of the Antelope, their variations are very in- 
considerable. The turn or magnitude of the 
horns; the different spots in the skin; or the 
diversities of their size ; consritute the chief 
marks bv which the several species are distin- 
guished: for, their mode of hving, habits, and 
prodigious swiftness, fall under one general 
description. borne 


Some species of the Antelope are said to 
form herds of two or three thousand, while 
others keep in small troops of five or six only. 
They frequently feed on the tender shoots of 
trees, which gives their flesh an excellent fla- 
vour. Those fattened for slaughter are far 
less delicious. The flesh of some species, in- 
deed, is said to taste of musk; occasioned, 
probably, by the qualities of the plants on 
which they feed. 

They are taken by means of falcons trained 
0 assist the greyhound, which would otherwise 
jiever come up with them ; by a sort of leo- 
Ira'rd, or ounce, carried on horseback by the 
fcnter ; and by sending a tame Antelope into 
lie lierd, with ropes fastened about it's horns 
!) as to entangle others. 

The White-Footed Antelope, of which w*e 
.e now more particularly to speak, measures 
Awards of four feet in height, to the top of the 
; oulders, and nearly the same in length, from 
5 bottom of the neck to the insertion of the 
I. It's horns, which are short, and proje6t 

a little 


a little forward, are somewhat triangular to- 
Vv'arJs the bottom, and blunt at the top ; and 
they vary from most of the Antelope race, in 
being more distant at the bases, as well as in 
having no annulations. The head is like that 
of a stag; and the ears, w^hichare large, are 
marked with two black stripes. It has a short 
black mane extending half way down it's 
back; and a tuft of long hairs on the fore 
part of it's neck, above which is a large spot 
of white. There is also a similar spot on 
the chest, between the fore-legs ; as well as a 
small white spot on each fore-foot, and tu o 
white spots on each hind-foot, which give the 
specific name to this animal. It's tail is ratlicr 
long, and tufted with black hairs. The colour 
of the male is a dark grey, but that of the tc- 
male is a pale brown. The female is 
tute of horns ; but has a mane, tuft, a: 
striped cars, like the male. 

These animals inliabit the interior parts ol 
the East Indies; and are sometimes broiigb 
by the natives to the British settlements, wh 
they are purchased as great curiosities. T 
have, of late years, been frequently impo 


into England ; and, notwithstanding the pro- 
digious difference of climate, ha ve been known 
to breed and thrive surprisingly. 

In the days of Aurengzebe, they abounded 
between Delhi and Lalior, on the way to Ca- 
chemire ; and they were called Nyl-ghau, or 
' Blue or Grey Bulls. According to Bernier, 
that warlike prince, when on a journey, in- 
closed them by his army of hunters within 
nets ; which, being gradually drawn closer 
and closer, the king, with his omrahs or no- 
bles, and other hunters, entered the circle, and 
dispatched them with arrows, spears, or fire- 
arms. This, indeed, is still a very common 
way of destroying wild beasts, in many ori- 
ental countries. 

The White-Footed Antelopes, when habi- 
tuated to a domestic life, are in general ex- 
tremely docile, and express a peculiar affe61:ion 
for those who feed them ; licking their hands, 
and expressively signifying their gratitude. 
They will eat oats;' but prefer grass and hay, 
and are particularly fond of bread. When 
thirsty, they will drink tvvo gallons at a time. 



They are said to be, occasionally, very vi- 
cious and fierce. When the males fight, they 
drop on their knees at a distance from each 
other ; and, in this attitude, make their ap- 
proaches, till they come within the compass of 
a single spring, when thev suddenly dart for- 
ward at each other. In a state of confine- 
ment, they often fall into that posture, with- 
out any serious intention of mischief. They 
have, however, been known to attack man- 
kind unprovoked. Of this Pennant gives an 
instance : a labourer, he says, looking over 
some pales which inclosed a few of these An- 
telopes, was alarmed by one of the males fly- 
ing at him like lightning ; but he was saved 
by the intervention of the wood-work, which 
the animal broke to pieces, and at the same 
time one of his horns. 

The female is supposed to go nine months 
with young, and has sometimes two at a 
birth. The young, whether male or female, 
are of a fav, n-colour. 


f HIS beautiful bird, the Merops Viridis of 
Linnaeus, is called by BufFoii the Green Blue- 
Throated Bee-Eater. 

A little accident, BufFon remarks, which 
happened to a bird of this species long after it 
was dead, affords an instance of the mistakes 
"which are apt to embarrass the nomenclature. 
The bird belonged to Mr. Dandridge, and was 
described, delineated, engraved, and coloured, 
by two English naturalists, Edwards and Al - 
bin : a Frenchman well skilled in ornithology, 
says Buffon, and notwithstanding he had be- 
side him a specimen, has supposed that these 
two figures have represented two distinct spe- 
cies, and has in consequence described them 
separately, and under different denominations^ 

The bird of Mr. Dandridge, observed by 
Edwards, was one-third smaller than the Eu- 
ropean Bee- Eater ; and the two middle quills 
of it's tail were much longer and narrower. 



It is, in fa6l, thus described by that celebrated 
paturalist, -whose figure we have also adopted. 

The bill is pretty long, sharp-pointed, and 
has a downward incurvation ; the upper man- 
dible being black or dusky, and the lower 
whitish at the base. The beginning of the 
forehead, next the bill, is blue ; of w^hich co- 
lour, likewise, are the throat and sides of the 
head, beneath the eyes : and the crown, and 
hinder part of the head, as well as the hinder 
part of the neck, are of a red or orange-colour. 
On the upper part of the breast, there is a 
transverse mark in the form of a crescent, 
with the horns pointing upwards ; the back, 
and lesser covert feathers of the wings, are of 
a parrot-green colour ; tlie rump, or coverts 
of the tail, are of a blueish green ; the breast 
and belly are of a light green ; the thighs are 
of a reddish brown.; and the coverts beneatli 
the tail are of a dirty green. The greater 
quills of the wings are dusky at their tips, hav- 
ing a little green on their edges towards the 
base : the centre quills are of an orange co- 
lour, bordered with green, and marked with 
black spots a little within their tips, the ex- 


i>tteme tips being orange ; the interior quills 
,L»ext the back are wholly green ; and the first 
row of coverts above the quills is orange in 
the centre, and green on the edges* The tail 
is green, but the shafts of the feathers are 
brown ; and the two centre feathers, which 
proje61: more than two inches beyond the rest, 
are brown at their tips, and very narrow, be- 
ing little more than the naked shafts. The 
under-side of the tail is of a dusky green. 
The legs are short ; the three forward toes are 
partly connected together ; and the claws are 
strong. The legs and feet are of a dusky 
brown colour. 

In the subje6t described by Brisson, under the 
name of Apiaster Madagascariensis Torqua- 
tus, which is also delineated in the Planches 
Enluminees, there was no blue on the front, 
and the green on the under side of the body 
partook of the beryl cast ; the upper side of 
the head, and of the neck, was of the same 
gold green as the back ; there was, in general, 
a tint of gold yellow thrown loosely on the 
whole of the plumage, except on tlie quills of 
the wings and the superior coverts of the tail ; 
and the black bar did not extend across the 



eyes, but below them. Brisson has remarked, 
besides, that the wings were Hned with fulvous 
feathers; that the shafts of the tail, which 
were brown above, as in Edwards's bird, were 
whitish beneath ; and, lastly, that there were 
several quills and coverts of the wings, and 
many quills of the tail, edged near the end, as 
well as tipped, with yellow. 

It is obvious, however, as Buffon mentions, 
that all these minute differences are not more 
than might be expe6i:ed in individuals of even 
the same species, but only diversified by age or 
sex. The slight variation of size, BufFon adds, 
may be imputed to the same causes. 


IHIS very large and fine Butterfly, though ii 
native of China, is also well known to exist 
in many parts of the East Indies. 

In the Linnaean- system, the Papillio, or 
Butterriies, are divided into five phalanges, or 
genera : viz. the Equites, or those the under- 
wings of which have each an appendage, or 
tail, and usually, for this reason, denominated 
Swallow-tails ; the Heliconii, or those of 
which the wings are long, narrow, and even at 
the edges, the superior wings being large, and 
the inferior small ; the Danaii, or those the 
wings of which are smooth and even at the 
tdoes, without either denticulations or tails, 
€xa6tly like those of the common white But- 
terfly ; the Nymphales, or those whose wings 
are denticulated, as well as occellated, or 
marked with eye-like spots or rings ; and, 
lastly, the Plebeii, or common herd, compre- 
hending all those numerous tribes of minute 
Butterflies, which seem to be a distinct gene- 


ration, or order, from any of the other four 
classes just en^umcrated. 

The Butterfly in the annexed print, which 
we are now particularly to describe, has re- 
ceived from Linnsus the name of Deiphobus ; 
and it arranges itself, according to the system 
of that great naturalist, under the genus Equi- 
tes : it is, consequently, regularly denominated' 
the Deiphobus, Equites, of Linnaeus. 

For the following minute description, as 
w^eli as for the original delineation, of this hue 
Butterfly, we are indebted to that celebrated ! 
English Aurelian, the late Mr.- Moses Harris. 

The antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen, 
together with the superior wings, are of a fine 
dark brown ; eacli wing having, however, 
near the shouldt;r ligament, two triangular 
Npots of deep scarlet ; the largest of which is 
nearly three-quarters of an inch long; and 
the smallest, beneath it, about the size of a 
canary-seed. I'he inferior wings are of an 
orange brown, but very pale ; and, in the cen- 
tre, on each membrane, near the fan edge, is a 



[large black spot: .these spots, joining together, 
compose a broad irregular bar extending to 
the abdominal part, where there are two sepa- 
rate and distin6l s|30ts on each wing. The 
tails are black ; and, on the fan-edge of each, 
there are six crescent-shaped spots of orange 

The expansion of the wings is six inches 
and a half. 

The Butterfly thus described and figured, is 
a female. The male, which is smaller, is 
given by Edwards ; who, Mr. Harris remarks, 
I seems to produce it as a distindl species, though 
! their markings are similar, and both were 
brought from China. 

The fa61: seems to be, that very little is ia 
general known respe6ling Butterflies, and many 
other objects, from distant regions, unless 
■where skilful naturalists have not only visited 
but resided. The beauties, and the curiosities 
of nature, are often brought over to England, 

; as well as other parts of Europe, by persons 
'very little accjuainted with the necessary en- 

! cpiries 


quiries to be made on the spot ; and, not un- 
ffeqiiently, by such as would have insuffi- 
cient leisure for such pursuits, if they were 
even better informed. It is thus thar we have 
frequently to lament a want of information 
respedling the habits and properties of some 
of the most pleasing subje6ls in nature. 





N<^ XXII. A 

1. The black LEOPARD. 

The summer DUCK of CAROLINA. 






. i HE Black Leopard is an animal which ap- 
pears to be very little known by naturalists ; 
and was, perhaps, never seen in Europe, till 
the subje6l from which our pnint is copied was 
brought over to England, from Bengal, by 
Warren Hastings^ Esq. as a present to his 

Naturalists, indeed, seem not a little at a 
■ loss to distinguish between Leopards,, stridliy 
$0 called, and several other animals. 

The Panther, the Ounce, and the Leopard, 
, BufFon remarks, which are all animals of 
I Asia and Africa, have not only been mistaken 
by naturalists for each other, but have been 
confounded with certain animals of the same 
kind found in America* 

The Large Panther, which BufFon calls 
simply the Panther, is the animal, he asserts, 
which the Greeks distinguished by the name 
of Pardulis ; the ancient Latins, first by th;it 



of Paiithera, and afterwards by that of Pardus ; 
and the modern Latuis hv the name of Leo- 
pardiis. The body of this animal is five or 
six feet long, and the tail about two. It's 
skin, which is of a yellow hue, but whitish 
under the bellv, is marked with black spots, 
cither annular or in the form of beads. The 
generality of these rings have one or m.ore 
central spots : some of them are oval, and 
others circular ; and they are frequently above 
three inches in diameter. 

The Little Panther of Oppian, the ancients 
have not distinguished by any particular name : 
but our modern travellers have called it the 
Ounce, Once, or Onza ; corruptedlv, EufFon 
says, from the name Lvnx, or Lunx. To 
this animal he preserves the denomination ct 
the Ounce, from it's aiEnitv to the Lvnx, and 
describes it as much smaller than the Panther. 
It's body is oulv about three feet and a half in 
length ; but it's tail frequently measures three 
feet. It's hair, too, is longer than that of the 
Panther ; and it is of a whitish grey on the 
back and sides, and of a grey still more whire 
under the belly. The spots, however, a: .- 


nearly of the same form and size as those of 
the Panther. 

The animal to which BufFon confines the 
iiame of Leopard, he says, is imnoticed by 
the ancients ; being a native of Senegal ^ 
Guinea, and other southern countries, which 
they had not discovered. It is larger than the 
Ounce, but considerably smaller than the 
Panther, being only about four feet in length, 
and the tail two, or two and a half. The hair 
on the back and sides is of a ycllov/ colour, 
more or less deep ; under the belly it is whitish ; 
and the spots, which are all annular, are 
smaller and less regularly disposed than those 
of either the Panther or the Ounce. The 
species of the Leopard is subje6l: to more vu^ 
rieties than that of the Panther ; and the 
Leopard skins differ much from each other, 
as well in the general colour of the hair as in 
that of the spots. 

The Panther, the Ounce, and the Leopard, 
are found only in Africa, and in the hottest 
climates of Asia : they have never been dif- 
fused over the cold, nor evcQ over the tempe- 
rate , 


rate, regions of the north. They could never^ 
therefore, BufFon adds, have found a passage 
to the New World by any northern land ; and 
the American animals of this kind, he savs, 
ought not to be confounded with those of 
Africa and Asia, as has been erroneously 
done by the generality of nomenclators. 

Leopards, in general, delight in thick fo- 
rests, and often frequent the borders of rivers, 
and the environs of solitary habitations j where 
animals, either wild or tame, are their prey. 
They easily climb trees, in pursuit of wild 
cats or other animals ; but they seldom attack 

Notwithstanding what BufFon has remarked, 
by way of censure, on those who class toge- 
ther the Panther, the Ounce, or the Leopard, 
with similar animals of the New World, wc 
itrongly incline to consider, as the same spe- 
cies, our Black Leopard, brought from Ben- 
gal, and deposited in the Tower of London ; 
5ind the animal which BufFon has described 
under the came of the Jaguarette, a very rare 


animal, but sometimes found in different partjS 
of South America. 

Our Black Leopard, from the East Indies, 
which is the figure annexed, we have reason 
to think, is there very uncommon. It is of a 
dusky black, sprinkled with spots of a glossy- 
black, disposed in the same form as those of 
the conimon Leopard ; but, what is very re- 
jnarkable, the hair, on being turned aside, ap- 
pears beneath of a yellowish tinge. 

In BufFon's account of the Jaguarette, it is 
described as having black hair, variegated with 
spots of a still deeper black. It is thought, by 
most naturalists, to be a black variety of the 
Jaguar, which is in almost every respecSl lik^ 
the Leopard; being of a bright yellow colour, 
about the size of BufFon's Ounce, but spotted 
more like the Leopard. 

To us it appears, that these animals are, in 
fa6t. Leopards, or animals with simple circu- 
lar spots, of the New World, as America is 
generally called by naturalists ; and that the 
Jaguarette, and Black Leopard, both scarce 



animals, are merely tie negroes of the Leo- 
pard race. 

In short, simple spots, circular, or nearly- 
circular, seem to be chara6^:eristics of the 
Leopard ; and rings, or oval spots, with round 
spots in their centres, distinguish Panthers ei- 
ther large or small ; just as the Tiger, and it^s 
affinities, some of which have also been con- 
founded with the Leopard, are marked with 
©bloDg streaks, or stripes, and not with spots. 

SI'MMER Brest Of CAK01>"l^-V. 

.A ■ 


This beautiful Duck, called by Edwards the 
Summer Duck of Carolina, is the Anas Spon- 
sa of Linnaeus. By Brisson, it is named Anas 
^stiva, or the Summer Duck; by BufFon, the 
Beautiful Crested Duck ; by Brown, the Ame- 
rican Wood Duck; and, by Catesby, Pen- 
nant, and Latham, the Summer Duck. Fer- 
nandez also describes it under the native Ame- 
rican name of the YEtaftzonyayauhqui. Ed- 
wards, whom wc have followed, calls it the 
Summer Duck of Carolina.- 

The rich plumage of this beautiful Duck 
has the appearance of being a studied attire, 
or gala dress, to which it's elegant crested 
head adds peculiar grace and lustre. It is for 
this reason that Linnjeus has given it the epi- 
thet of Sponsa, or the Bride. 

It's specific chara6lcr is, that it's crCst is 
pendant, and double ; and it is variegated with 
green, with blue, and with white. 



The bill of this bird, described by Ed- 
jwards, is red in the middle, and there is a black 
spot at the extremity. The irides are yellow, 
"\^ith a purple circle ; and, on each side of the 
head, there are two long feathers, apparently 
divided into hairs of a blueish green colour, 
with a purplishjcast, and a narrow white bor- 
der. The feathers on the head are of a violet 
hue; from each side of the throat, which is 
white, run several bow-like streaks; and the 
breast is red spotted with white. Near the 
small coverts of the wings, there are broad 
black streaks, w^hich run across the back ; but 
the upper parts of the wings display a diver- 
sity of colours. The tail is blue and purple ; 
and the feet, which are brown,. have a reddish 
cast on their fore-parts. 

BufFon gives the following ; but neither 
words, nor even the pencil, can describe such 
variegated plumage with absolute precision. 

A piece of beautiful rufous, says Buffon, 
specked with little white dashes, covers the 
breast, as well as the back of the neck, and i& 
neatlv intersedlcd on the shoulders by a streak 



of white, accompanied by a streak of black. 
The wing is covered with feathers of a brown 
that melts into black, with rich reflections of 
burnished steel ; and those of the flanks, which 
are very delicately fringed and vermiculated 
with little blackish lines on a grey ground, 
are prettily striped at the tips with black and 
white, the streaks being displayed alternately, 
and seeming to vary according to the motion 
of the bird. The under-side of the body is 
pearly white-grey ; and a small white collar 
rises into a chin-piece below the bill, and 
sends off a scallop below the eye, on which 
another long streak of the same colour passes 
like a long eye -lid. The upper side of thft 
head is decorated with a superb tuft of long, 
^yhite, green, and violet feathers, which fall 
back like hair, in bunches parted by smaller 
white bunches. The front and the cheeks 
dazzle with the lustre of bronze. The iris is 
red ; and the bill is the same, with a black spot 
above : the horny tip of the bill is also black, 
and the base is hemmed with a fleshy brim of 

Besides tlie names already enumerated, as 



having been given by travellers and naturalist^ 
to this beautiful bird, is that of the Branch 
Duck; which it has, no doubt, received from 
the singular circumstance of it's being fond of 
perching on branches of the tallest trees. 

The most beautiful birds that I have seen 
in this country," says - M. Dierviile, in his 
Voyage au Port-Royal de 1' Acadie ; or, Voy- 
age to Port-Royal in Acadia, or Nova Scotia ; 
*' are the Branch Ducks : so called, because 
they perch. Nothing is liner, or better mingled, 
than the endless variety of colours that com- 
pose their plumage : but I was still more asto- 
nished, to see them perched on a pine, an oak, 
or a beech tree ; and to find, that they actu- 
ally hatch their young in a hole of some of 
these trees, wliere they rear them till capable 
of quitting the nest, and of following, by in- 
stinct, their parents to the water. They are 
very different from the common ducks of that 
country ; which arc denominated Black, and 
are almost entirely of that colour, without be* • 
ing variegated like the Ducks of Europe. 
The Branch Ducks have a more slender body; , 
and they arc, likewise, more delicate food." 



' According to Du Pratz, this beautiful Duck 
inhabits Louisiana. The Branch Ducks," 
says this author, " are somewhat larger than 
our teals. Their plumage is so exceedingly- 
beautiful, and so changing, that painting can- 
not imitate it. They have on the head a 
beautiful crest of the brightest colours, and 
their red eyes appear like flames. The natives 
deck their calumets or pipes with the skin of 
the neck. Their flesh is very good ; but,- 
when too fat, it has an oily taste. This spe- 
cies of Duck is not migratory : it is found in 
all seasons j and it perches, which the rest'' 
do not.'* 

The Summer Duck of Carolina is sm.aller 
than the common Duck; but it's legs are' 
longer in proportion. These rich descrip- 
tions, however, apply only to the m.ale, or 
drake ; for the female is as simply clodied as 
the male is pompously attired. She is, in 
faiTt, almost brov/n ; " having however,'*'' 
according to Edwards, something of the 
crest of the male." T'his observer adds, that 
he received several of these charming Ducks 



alive from Carolioa ; but he does not inform 
us whether they bred in England. 

From the name of Summer Ducks, given 
to them by Catesby in his celebrated History 
of Carolina, *' it seems to be inferred,'* savs 
BufFon, that they reside there, and in Vir- 
ginia, during the summer only.*' In winter, 
they have been supposed to retire to Mexico. 
They breed, liowever, in Carolina and Vir- 
ginia ; placing their nests in the holes made 
by the woodpeckers in large trees near water, 
and are said to be particularly attached to the 
cypress. '*The parents," savs BuiFon, " carry 
the voung into the water on their backs; 
when the ducklings, on the smallest symptoms 
of danger, cling fast by the bill of the old 


This is one of the four species of Banks! i 
kscribed in the Supplementum Plantarum of 
Li-nnaeus, specimens of which are contained iil 
rhe Herbarium of that incomparable naturalist^ 
now in the possession of Dn Smith, of Marl- 
borough Street, London* 

Thougli this plant, which is a native of 
New Holland, has received from Linnaeus the 
name Banksia Serrata ; it is called, by Dr. 
Gaertner, Banksia Conchifera. 

This circumstance, which in truth would 
need no apology, were it not for the very 
superlative' merits of Linnaeus, has received 
a very liberal one in the Appendix to Mr. 
White's Journal of his Voyage to New 
South W ales, which v^e shall take the libeity 
to transcribe. 

" Dr. Gaertner, in his admirable book on 
fruits and seeds, has figured the fruit of several 
Banksias, some of them described by Lin-- 
li^us. Having had his plates, with the names, 
engraved before he saw the Supplementum of 
LinnjEus, his nomenclatme differs from that 



-^IJf the last mentioned author; but he quotes 
his synonyms in the letter-press. We men- 
tion this, that he may not be accused of wan- 
tonly changing Linnsan names ; and that for| 
the worse, as it would appear to any one unin- 
formed of this circumstance.'* i 

The chara6i:er of the genus," proceeds 
Mr. White's Appendix, which we have been 
informed v/as written by Dr. Shaw of the 
British Museum, " is very badly made out in 
Linnseus. Gaertner has greatly corre6led it : 
but it is still a doubt, whether the flowers ar? 
constantly monopetalous, or tetrapetalous^ noi* 
have we materials sufficient to remove this 
difficulty. All we can say is, tliat Banksia ii 
next in natural arrangement to Protea ; from 
which it is essentially distinguished, by having 
^ hard, woody, bivalve capsule, containing 
Iwo winged seeds, with a moveable membra- 
nous partition between them. It is strangely 
.misplaced in Murray's 14th edition of Syste- 
jua V egetablUum, being put between Ludwi- 
^ia and Oldenlandia !" 

Though nothing, perhaps, can be objedled 
to these general remarks on the ditferent spe- 



cies of Banksia, we cannot but incline to an 
opinion, however presumptuous it may appear, v 
that in the instance of the Banksia Serrata, at | 
feast, the appellation of Gaertner, which is j 
Banksia Conchifera, cannot be regarded as a | 
worse name than that of Linnasas. Were j 
the merits of these two distinguished natura- ■ 
lists to be put in competition on this single 
point, we might even be tempted to prefer 
Oaertner to a man who has, in fa6t, no pa- \ 
rallel. The name Serrata, it is true, being " 
taken from the leaf, is a more constant deno- 
mination ; but still, in it's fru6llfication, or i 
most perfe6l state, it has so much the appear- 
ance of bearing shells, that we should prefer | 
the Conchifera of Gaertner, if we did not 
think it right to follow, in almost every thing, | 
him who has in almost every thing surpassed ; 
all other naturalists with respe£l to the syste- i 
matic arrangements of nature. 


The Banksia Serrata, then, which we have- ; 

faithfully copied from an original drawing , 

adlually made in New South Wales from the | 

living plant, is considered as the most stately of j 

the genus. It's trunk is thick, and rugged; ; 



and the leaves, which are alternate» stand thick; 
about the ends of the branches, on short foot- 
stalks, and are narrow, obtuse, strongly ser- 
rated, or notched at the edges, smooth, and of 
a bright green colour above, but beneath 
opaque and whitish, with a strong rib running 
through their middle. A very large cylindri- 
cal spike of flowers terminates each branch : 
most of these flowers, however, are abor- 
tiye; a few only, in each spike, producing 
ripe seed. The form of the capsules may 
be understood from the annexed figure, which 
represents a whole spike in fruit, but only 
about one-flfth of the natural size. Our 
figure, too, is not taken at the time of it's 
full maturity, since the shelly appearances 
are then seen open, somewhat like the aper- 
ture of a divided cockle-shell. The capsules 
arc covered with a thick down. 

The Banksia Serrata, when in bud, greatly 
resembles the Banksia Incognita, as we have 
delineated that plant, except that the colour i$ 
of a blueish hue. When in flower, the colour 
is nearly lilac. 


naturalist's pocket 




1. The hedgehog. 







The charadler of this g^nus of animals, in 
which there are very few species, is — that 
they have five toes on each foot ; and the body- 
is covered with strong spines, or prickles. 

Though the Common Hedgehog, or Eri- 
naceus Kuropasus of Linnaeus, has a very 
formidable appearance, it is one of the most 
harmless creatures in the universe. 

It's head, back, and sides, are covered with 
strong sharp spines or prickles ; but the nose, 
breast^ and belly, are cloathed with tine soft 
hair. The legs are short, almost naked, and 
of a dusky colour ; the ears are broad, round, 
and naked ; the eyes are small, and placed 
high in the head ; tlic mouth, which is also 
small, is well furnished with teeth, to chew 
it's food, but of little use either for attack or 
defence. The toes on each foot are long and 
serrated; and the tail, which is httlc more 
than an inch in length, is so concealed by the 



spines as scarcely to be visible. The prickles, 
which are about an inch in length, are very 
sharp-pointed ; their points are whitish, the 
middle of them being a dark or dusky brown, 
and the lower part of the same colour with the 

Tire common Hedgehog, from the point of 
the nose, to the extremity of it^s tail, usually 
measures about ten inches. The legs, tail, 
and snout, are generally of a dark, or blackish 

This animal has the power of defending 
itself from the enemy w^ith which it declines to 
combat, and of annoying the foe whicli it ne- 
ver ventures to attack. Possessed of little 
strength, and less agHitv, to encounter or es- 
cape it''s assailants, it has received from Nature 
a pricklv armour, with the faculty of rolling 
itself up into a ball, and thus presenting, from 
every part of it^s body, a poignant weapon of 
defence. Even from it's fear does the Hedge- 
hog: obtain another cnrine of securitv ; for 
the smell of it's urine, which excess of appre- 
hension generally induces it to shed, so much 



annoys the nostrils of it's enemies, as to make 
them abandon the pursuit, and retire to a 
considerable d^istance. 

When touched, it does not offer to escape^ 
or to defend itself with it's teeth or feet : but^ 
instantly rolling itself up, presents only a 
round mass of prickles, impervious on every 
i;ide. In this form, it patiently waits till it's 
enemies either pass by, or are fatigued with 
fruitless attempts to annoy it. 

The cat, the weasel, the ferret, polecat, and 
martin, soon decline the combat; birds of prey 
never venture to seize it ; and even the dog 
generally makes it's attacks in vain. Accu- 
mulated danger only increases this animal's 
precautions to keep on it's guard ; and, in 
attempting to bite, the assailant more fre- 
quently receives than inflidls a wound. The 
enraged dog barks, and rolls the animal along 
with it*s paws ; but the patient Hedgehog 
submits to every indignity for the sake of re- 
-mainlng secure. The dog, at length, after 
expressing lt*s chagrin by barking, leaves the 
inollcnsire animal as it was found : when 



the Hedgehog, hndlng itself free from danger, 
ventures to peep out from it's ball ; and, if not 
again interrupted, dehberately advances to it's 
retreat. The fox, however, is said, by his 
superlative cunning, to weary out the patience 
of this little animal ; teazing it with such per- 
severance, that it is at length constrained to un- 
fold, when the artful glutton instantly devours 

Like most wild animal?, the Hedgehog 
spends the greatest part of the day in sleep, 
and is principally in motion during the night. 
It generally resides in small thickets, in hedges, 
or in ditches covered with bushes ; making a 
hole about six or eight inches deep, which it 
lines with moss, grass, or leaves. 

This animal feeds on roots, fruits, worms, 
and inse61:s ; but is falsely charged with suck- 
ing cows, and wounding their udders : indeed, 
the smaliness of it's mouth might seem suffi- 
cient to exculpate it from this reproach. 

It is also said to be very destructive to gar- 
<lens and orchards ; where, according to the 



opinion of the vulgar, it rolls itself among a 
heap of fruit, and thus contrives to carry off 
a large quantity, which are transfixed on it's 
prickles. This imputation, however, is as 
unfounded as the former; since it's spines are 
evidently so disposed, that no fruit will stick 
on them, even when the experiment is at- 
tempted by human hands. In short, instead 
of being a noxious animal, and deserving pro- 
scription, it seems to us a very serviceable 
agent for destroying worms and inse6ls, which 
are so prejudicial to vegetation. 

As vulgar errors are not easily eradicated, 
we shall support, our opinion by the testimony 
of the celebrated Buffon. 

That naturalist, compleatly acquits Hedge- 
hogs from the charge of being mischievous in 
gardens; but, at the same time, he accuses 
them of pra61:ices which their form and gene- 
ral habits would little incline us to suspe61:. 

" I have often," says he, " had the female 
and her young, brouglit me in the month of 
June : they are generally from three to five in 

number ; 


number; and are at first whitC; with only thfe ^iji 
rudiments of their spines apparent. 

*' Desirous to rear some of them, I once ' 
put the dam and her young into a tub, with j, 
abundant meat, bread, bran, and fruit ; but 
the mother, instead of suckling her young, j. 
devoured them all, oni^; after the other. 

" On another occasion, a Hedgehog that ; 
had made it's way into the kitchen, discovered 
a little pot, in which there was some meat pre^ 
pared for boiling; when the mischievous ani- 
mal drew out the meat, and left it's excrements 
in the stead. 

** I kept males and females in the same 
apartment; wdiere they lived together, but 
never coupled. I permitted several of them to 
range my garden : thev did very little damage ; | 
and it was scarcely perceivable that thev were 1 
there. They lived on the fruits which fell 
from the trees ; dug the earth into shallow 
holes with their snouts ; and eat caterpillars, 
beetles, and worms, as well as some kinds of 
rotits. 'i'hey were also very fond of fleshy 



yvhich they devoured either boiled, roasted, or 

These animals inhabit every part of Europe, 
except Lapland, Norway, and other veiy cold 
climates ; and, as we are told by Flacourt, 
Hedgehogs like those of France, are found at 
Madagascar, where they are called Soras. 

*' Hedgehogs, says BufFon, *' when at 
large in the country, are generally found in 
woods, under the trunk of old trees, as well 
as in the clefts of rocks. I do not believe that 
they ever climb up trees, as some naturalists 
have affirmed ; or that they make use of their 
prickles to carry off the fruit, since it is with 
their mouths that they seize it. Though they 
are very numerous in the forests of France, I 
have never seen one of them on a tree : they 
always remain at the foot, in some hollow 
space, or under moss. 

" They seldom approach human habita- 
tions; and, though they prefer dry and hilly 
grounds, they are not unfrequently found in 



Pledgehogs couple in the spring, and brin^ 
'forth about the beginning of summer. 

They sleep during the winter; and, conse- 
quently, the stories which have been propa- 
gated, respedling their providing against tha 
season, are certainly false: they are at al 
times satisfied with a small portion of food . 
and are capable of subsisting a long time 
w ithout any aliment whatever. 

Like all oiher animals which remain in ? 
torpid state during the winter, their blood i; 
cold. Their flesh, though' generally reje(5lec 
as unfit for human food, is nevertheless sait 
by some naturalists to possess an excellent fla- 
vour. , 


For this very beautiful bird, which Edwards? 
has named the Blue-Breasted Parrot, we arc 
indebted to that ingenious naturalist. 

By him we are informed, that this species is 
about eleven inches long ; that the bill is re- 
markably black ; that the head, neck, and 
back, are of a fine scarlet colour ; that the 
breast and shoulders are of a deep rich blue ; 
that the wings are scarlet, the primaries being 
blue i that the thighs are scarlet, with a few 
blue feathers intermixed ; and, that the tail, 
which is very long, is of a bright scarlet co- 
lour, tipped with pale orange. 

Few other naturalists have noticed this bird; 
which, probably, differs little or nothing, ex- 
cept in beauty of hue, from the generahty of 
the species. 



The Common Angler is to be classed, not 
among the beauties, but the cuiiosities of Na- 
ture. It is, in fa6l, one of the most deformed 
inhabitants of the ocean. 

This very singular species of fish was known 
to the ancients, by the pames of Batrachos, 
and of Kana : among us, it has obtained the 
several appellations of the Toad Fish, the Frog 
Fish, and the Sea Devil ; as well as it's most 
general denomination, the Common Angler. 

It's entire form much resembles that of a 
frog, or toad, in their tadpole state; from 
which circumstance it has, of course, derived 
two of it's various names : but, as the fish of- 
ten grows to the length of four or five feet, 
the vast difference of magnitude, between that 
and a tadpole, would prevent, in m.uny minds, 
any idea of assimilation, without somcprevious 
liint of an existing likeness. 



The head of the Common Angler, which Is 
considerably larger than the full extent of the 
whole body, is round at the circumference, 
and flat above ; and the mouth is sometimes a 
yard wide. The under jaw is longer tlian the 
upper, and both are well armed with slender 
sharp teeth. In the roof of the mouth, there 
arc also two or three rows of similar teeth ; 
and, at the root of the tongue, are two ellipti- 
cal bones, opposite each other, both likewise 
thickly set with very sharp teeth. The nos- 
trils have no external orifice ; but there are 
two large internal apertures in the upper part 
of the mouth, which supply their place. On 
each side of the upper jaw, are two sharp 
spines ; and there are several others scattered 
over the upper surface of the head. Exadtly 
above the snout, there are two long tough fila- 
ments; and, on the back, there are three 
more. To these filaments, Pliny gives the 
name of corniculne ; asserting, that the animal 
makes use of them to attra6l small fish. With 
these extended, according to this author, the 
Common Angler, thus named from the cir- 
cumstance, conceals itself in muddy waters, 
leaving only these corniculae, or beards, 

visible ; 


visible : the curiosity of the smaller fish soon 
prompts them to approach and view these fila- 
ments ; when, their hunger inducing ihem to 
seize the bait^ the ambushed Angler instanta- 
neously draws in it's appendage, with the 
adhering little fish, which is thus precipitated 
into it's enormous mouth, and greedily de- 

This account, however improbable it may 
appear, has gained credit among some of our 
most distinguished naturalists ; who, perhaps, 
have not sufficiently refle6led that, from the 
multitude of fables blended with the fa^s of 
that naturalist, he is entitled but to a small de- 
gree of credit, where credulity seems called 
for, unless supported by some less doubtful 

On this occasion, say some naturalists, a 
strong presumption seems to oppose what is 
asserted by Pliny : since, it is well known that 
there Is one species of this fish destitute of these 
filaments ; which, they add, it certainly would 
not want, were they necessary to the existence 
of the kind. 



But, after all, this reasoning, we apprehend, 
will not of itself overthrow what is advanced 
by Pliny: since he has not any where asserted 
that it is absolutely necessary to this fish's 
existence, that it should possess these filaments; 
and, if it were, it would by no means follow, 
that another species, without them, might not 
enjoy other means of obtaining it's food. 

Few people possess any opportunity of as- 
certaining fadls, as to the habits of this fish ; 
which, certainly, if no credit is to be given to 
the account of Plinv, lias very little right to 
the appellation by which it is most commonly 

For our own parts, we profess our entire 
ignorance of the truth : though we risque lit- 
tle in suggesting, tiiat tliese filaments can ne- 
ver be the sole means of the animal's securing 
it's prey; since it is well known to be a greai 
destroyer of the dog fish, which it could 
never possibly master by such means. MHiy, 
then, it mav be demanded, cannot that species 
of the Angler which wants these filaments, 
obtuin all if s rood by the same means as the 


Common Angler procures the most important 
part of it's own ? 


' From this opposition of opinions, however, 
the reader gains little knowledge of the fa6l, 
lA^hich appears still to remain problematical. 

We must, therefore, content ourselves, till 
firther'informatlon on the subject may occur, 
'with compleating our description of the fish, 
according to it's appearance, without farther 
notice of it's habits. 

Along the edges of the head and body arc ' 
a' great number of short, fringed, skinny sub- 
' stances, placed at equah distances. The ven- 
tral fins are broad, thick, and fleshy ; jointed 
like arms ; and, in the insides, divided into 
fingers. The aperture to the gills is situated' 
behind, and is very large;, the back fin is 
placed very low, near the beginning of the 
tail ; and the anal fin is beneath, nearly op- 
posite the former. The body becomes ex- 
ti'cmely slender near the tail, the end of 'which 
is quite even». 


The upper part of the Common Angler is 
of a dusky colour; the lower part is whiter 
and the skin is smooth throughout. 

Rondoletius informs us that, if we take out 
the bowels of this fish, the body will, exhibit a 
transparent appearance ; and that, accordingly, 
if a lighted candle be placed within the body, 
as in a lanthorn, the whole will have a very 
luminous and formidable aspedl. 

The fishermen, in general, entertain a ver)' 
great veneration for this hideous fish. They 
consider it as a great enemy to the dog-fish, 
from having frequently found the bodv of that 
fierce and voracious animal in it's stomach ; 
and, therefore, whenever thev happen to catch 
the Common Angler in their nets, they now 
usually comphment it with it's liberty. 







1. The FOSSANE. ^IJ^'-^n hI"^"^^ 

3. The flying MAUCAUCO. 







The Fossane is a beautiful animal of the 
weasel kind, about the size of a cat. It's 
body, which is slender, is covered, in general, 
with ash-coloured hair, mixed with tawny. 
Foar black lines extend from the hinder part 
c-f the head towards the back and shoulders; 
the whole underside of the body is a dirty 
white; and the tail is semi-annulated. 

This animal, which inhabits Madagascar, 
and Guinea; Cochin-China, and the Philip- 
pine Isles ; is fierce, and difficult to be tamed. 
In Guinea, according to Bosman, it is called 
Berbe, by the natives; but the Europeans, 
there, have named it the AVine-Bibber, from 
it's excessive fondness of palm-wine : it is, 
also, very destru6tive to poultry. Flacourt, in 
his History of Madagascar, informs us, that 
it is there considered as good food, and called 
Fossa ; whence, most probably, has i)een de- 
rived the European name Fossane, which we 
have adopted from Buffon. 



In describing this aniinal, naturalists have 
certainly differed from each other; but, per- 
haps, not more than animals of one known 
species are very frequently seen to vary. 

Pennant says, that the specimen of the Fos- 
sane in the Leverian Museum, differed in so 
many respe6ls, that he found it necessary to 
give a full description of it. 

He accordingly describes it, as a weasel 
with a white spot on each side of the nose, 
and another beneath each eye ; the rest of the 
nose, cheeks, and throat, being black. The 
ears are very large, upright, rounded, thin, 
naked, and black; the forehead, sides, thighs, 
rump, and upper part of the legs, are cinere- 
ous; on the back are many long black hairs ^ 
and, on the shoulders, sides, and rump, are 
dispersed several black spots. The tail, which 
is black towards the end, and mixed with 
tawny near the base, is slightly annulated with 
black, and In length equal to the whole bod v. 
The feet are blackish, and the claws white. 
This animal, Pennant adds, is the size of the 
Genet, to which is bears a great resemblance. 



BufFon, in describing the Fossane, observes 
that it is called by some travellers the Genet 
of Madagascar, on account of it*s resem- 
blance to that animal, in the colour of it's 
hair, and some other affinities. But, says 
BufFon, it is, in general, much smaller; and 
proves, to us, that it is not of the same kind,- 
by it's want of an odoriferous bag, the essen- 
tial attribute of the Genet. To ascertain this 
fadl, the Count De Buffon, who had been una- 
ble to procure one of these animals for dissec- 
tion, wrote a letter to Monsieur De Poivre, 
on the sub]e6l: in answer to which, he re- 
ceived the skin of a stuffed Fossane, with the 
following information. 

" The Fossane which I brought from Ma- 
dagascar, is an animal much resembling, in it's 
manners, those of our pole-cat. The inhabit, 
tants of the island assured me that, when the 
male Fossane is in heat^ he emits a very strong 
smell like that of musk. When I skinned 
one of these animals, which was in the royal 
garden, I did not discover any bag, nor did I 
find any odoriferous smell. I reared two of 
these animals, w hich were both males. I had 



them very young, and kept them about two or 
three months, in which time they had grown 
pretty famihar. I never found any bag in the 
parts you mention; but only observed, that 
their excrements had the same smell as those of 
our pole-cat. They eat both flesh and fruir, 
but preferred the latter. The Fo^sane is a ve- 
ry wild animal, and extremely difficult to be 
tamed. Though those which I had were ta- 
ken very young, they retained the aspecl and 
chara6ler of ferocity; which appeared to me 
somewhat extraordinary, in an animal which 
prefers fruit for it's food. The eye of the 
Fossane represents a black globe, very large in 
comparison with the size of it's head, which 
gives this animal a miscliievous look." 

Buffon adds, that tli^ Berba, or Bcrbc, of 
Guinea, is said by travellers, to have a more" 
pointed snout, and a smaller bodv, than our 
cat, and to be speckled like the civet. We 
know, concludes BulFon, of no other animal 
with which these indications so well agree, as 
that which we have just described under the 
name of the Fossane. 




The species of large birds, in general, like 
those of the large quadrupeds, BufFon repeat- 
edly observes, exist single, detached, and al- 
most without varieties. In the Pelican, he is 
of Opinion, these varieties may be reduced to 
two : the Brown Pelican, and the Saw-Billed 

The first of these varieties is the bird which 
we liave delineated, and are -.low about to de- 
i^cribe, under the appellation of the Americaa 
Pelican, agreeably to Edwards and other na- 
turalists. It is the Pelicanus Fuscus of Lin- 
nreus; and Pennant has called it the Dusky 

The plumage of the Pelican, BufFon re- 
marks, is subject to vary ; which, accordin;^ 
to the bird's age, is found more or less wlute, 
and tinged slightly witli rose-colour: it seems 
also to vary from circumstances, for it is. 
Sometimes mixed with grey and black. Thes^ 
differences have been remarked between indi- 

viduals which undoubtediv belonged to the 
same specie.^. Some, it is observed in Me- 
moires de r.Vcademie des Sciences," had their 
plumage entirely white, with a light and trans- 
parent cast of flesh-colour; except the wings, 
the great quills of which had a tinge of grey 
and black : the rest were of a much more de- 
cided flesh or rose-colour. 

These intermingled colours, however, are 
so little removed from a general grey or brown 
cast, that Klein does not hesitate positively to 
assert, that the Brown and the White Pehcans 
are only varieties of the same species. Sir 
Hans Sloanc, who had carefully observed the 
Brown Pelicans of America, confesses also that 
they appeared to be the same with the White 
or Common Pelican. Oviedo, too, speaking 
of the Pelicans with a cinereous plumage, 
which are seen on tlie rivers of the Antilles, 
remarks that some of them are of a very fine 

BuiFon inclines to think, that the brown co- 
lour, is the garb of the young ones ; for the 
Brown Pelicans have general! v been found to 



be smaller than the white. Those seen by El- 
lis, and others, near Hudson's Bay, v/ere also 
smaller, and of a dusky cast ; so that their 
white is not occasioned by the severity of the 
chmate. The same variety of colour is ob- 
served in the hot countries of the ancient con- 
tinent. Sonnerat, after having described two 
Pelicans of the Philippine islands — the one 
brown, and the other rose-coloured — expres- 
ses a suspicion, that he had only viewed the 
same bird at different ages. 

This opinion of BufFon^s, he observes, is 
confirmed by the circumstance of Brisson's 
having given a Philippine Pelican ; which 
seems to form the intermediate shade, being 
not wholly either grey or brown, but having 
only the wings, with part of the back, of that 
colour, and the rest white. 

For our parts, however, w^e should not be 
surprised, if this Philippine Pelican of Bris- 
iSon, as it is called, should be no other than 
lour American Pelican. I.ct the readers judge 
'for themselves, from the folio v*ing descriptions 
of both. 



Brisson's Philippine Pelican is described as 
being *' above grey cinereous, below white, 
and the rump of the same colour ; the head and 
neck bright whitish, with a longitudinal bar 
on the upper part of the neck variegated with 
brown and whitish; the greater wing-quills 
cinereous blackish ; the tail-quills cinereous 
white, their shafts being blackish, and the la- 
teral ones a bright white at their origki.'* 

Our American Pelican has the wliole head 
and neck covered with white feathers ; the 
feathers on the back are small, white at their 
shafts, and of a dusky black ash-colour on 
their sides, all terminating in points ; the tail 
is ash-coloured; the great quills of the wings 
are black; the lesser coverts of the wintrs are 
white in their middles, edged with cinereous ; S 
and the breast, bcllv, and sides, are of a dark j 
ash-colour, approaching to black, without j 
any intermixture of llglu colours. Tlic legs, 5 
which arc sluu t, arc of a dirty yellow greenish I 
colour ; and the claws are duskv. I 

Tlie American Pelican is fomid from the i 
Antilles, and Terra Firma, the Isthmus of Pa-- 



nama, and the Bay of Cam peachy, as far as 
Louisiana, and the country adjoining to Hud- 
son's Bay, These birds are seen, also, on the 
inhabited isles and inlets near St. Domingo ; 
and are very numerous on tliose small verdant 
isles which lie in the vicinity of Guadaloupe,, 
and which seem to be adapted for the retreats of 
different species of winged inhabitants. One 
of these has even been called, by the French, 
risle aux Grand-Gosiers, or the Island of 
Pelicans. The name Grand-Gosier, or Great 
Gullet, having been given to the Pelican, by 
tlie French inhabitants of the West India 
islands, on account of the large sac beneath 
it's bill ; as the Alpine inhabitants of Savoy 
are called Goitres, from the similar swelling 
in their throats, to which these mountaineers 
arc subje61:. 

The Pelican has been employed, by priests, 
and by poets, as an eniblem of maternal ten- 
derness ; lacerating it's breast, to nourish it's 
young with the flowing blood. This tale, 
which the ancient Fgyptians related of the 
vulture, is thought to have been first applied to 
the Pelican by St. Augustine, and St. Jerome. 



But the fable is not in the slightest degree ap- 
plicable to the Pelican, 

Father Labat informs us, that nothing can 
exceed the indolence of the Pelican, but it's 
gluttony. When it has, with difficulty, raised 
itself thirty or forty feet above the sea, it turns 
it's head with one eye dire6ted downwards, 
and continues to fly in that position till it per- 
ceives a fish sufficientlv near the surface ; when, 
with amazing swiftness, and unerring certainty, 
it darts down, and seizes the fish, which it 
deposits in it's bag. Thus it proceeds, though 
always rising slowly, till it has filled it's 
pouch; when it flies to land, and devours the 
•prey at leisure. At night, this indolent bird 
retires a little way from the shore; and, though 
it has the webbed feet and clumsy figure of a 
goose, it will perch only on son\e tree, among 
the light and airv tenants of the forest. Here, 
too, it spends great part of the day ; sitting in 
dismal solemnitv, and seemingly half asleeju 
Nor is It less filthy, than slothful and voraci- 
ous ; being seen, ahnost every moment, to- 
void excrements cf prodigious magnitude. 


aMericAj^ pelican. 

The female drops her eggs, to the number 
of four or five, on the bare ground ; and, in 
that situation, they continue till hatched. She 
patiently suffers them to be taken away; only- 
just venturing to peck, or to cry, when dis- 
turbed, as if actuated more by personal fear, 
than parental affe6lion. That she feeds her 
young, however, for some time, w^ith mace- 
rated fish, was ascertained by Father Labat ; 
who, having taken two Pelicans very young, 
tied them by their legs to a post stuck in the 
ground, where he had the pleasure of seeing 
the old one come to feed them. She remained 
wdth them the greatest part of the day, and 
spent her nights on the branch of a tree which 
overshadowed them. Thus all three became 
so tame, that they suffered themselves to be 
handled ; and the young ones very readily ac- 
cepted whatever fish were presented, always 
first putting them into their bags, and then 
swallowing them at leisure. 

Father Raymond assures us, that he has 
seen a Pelican, in South America, so tame, 
and well educated, that it would go ofi-' in the 
morning, at the word of command, and return 



to it's master before night, having it's pouch 
-distended with plunder ; part of which the 
proprietor made it disgorge, and part he per- 
mitted it to retain for it's own sustenance. 

The Bag of the Pelican, is termed Blague, 
or Blade, in the French AV^est India islands, 
from the English word Bladder. It is prepa- 
red, by well rubbing between the hands, lo 
soften the skin ; and, to increase it's pliability, 
it is smeared with the butter of the cocoa, and 
again passed between the hands: care being 
taken to preserve from injury that pan co- 
vered with feathers, which is -considered as 
very ornamental. The sailors, when they 
kill a Pelican put a cannon-ball, into the bag, 
and then hang it up, to give it the aliape of a 
tobacco-pouch. Sometimes thev convert these 
bags into caps. I'hey are also dressed by the 
American Indians, wlio make them into purses 
and tobacco-pouclies. They are the thickness 
of good parcbment, but extremely pliant and 
soft ; and the Spanish women in South Ame- 
rica, by sewing tliem tastefullv with gold and 
i>\\k, form beautiful work-bags. 

The flesh is mucli too rancid for liuman fond. 




This curious little animal, the Lemur Volans 
of Linnaeus, has received the appellation of. 
the Flying Maucauco ; from it's being some- 
what similar to the Maucauco, as the Flying 
Squirrel is to the Squirrel properly so called : 
both, however, having wings, like the Bat 
tribes, by which they are enabled to fly. In 
short, it is one of those animals which some- 
times so equally partake of the nature of qua- 
drupeds, and of birds, that it is difficult to de- 
cide in what rank they are most properly- 
placed ; and which, therefore, it is, perhaps, 
best to consider, in general, as a dlstin6l class, 
filling up what might otherwise seem a chasm 
in nature between the two descriptions. 

The Flying Maucauco, however, it must be 
confessed, has in it's formation but a very 
slight approximation to the winged tribes. 

It has a long head, and a . small mouth, 
viiih little round and membranous ears. There 



are no fore-teeth in the upper jaw ; but, in tlie 
lower, there are six, which are short, broad, 
elegantly pectinated, and placed distant from 
each other. From the neck to the hands, and 
from the hands to the hinder feet, extends a 
broad skin like that of the flving squirrel ; 
and this skin is also continued from the hinder 
feet to the tip of the tail, which is included ia 
it. The body, and the external pan of this 
skin, are wholly covered with soft, hoarv, or 
black and ash-coloured, hair : but, in adults, 
the back is hoary, crossed transversely with 
black lines. The inner side of the extended* 
skin appears membranous, with small veins 
and fibres dispersed throughout ; and the legs 
are cloathed with a soft vcllow down. Each 
foot has five toes ; and, the claws being broad, 
short, and crooked, the animal very strongly 
adheres to whatever it fastens on. 

The entire length of the Flving Maucauco 
is about tlirce feet ; it*s tail, which is very 
slender, being a span long. 

This animal inhabits the countrv about Gu- 
zurat ; and is also a native of the Molucc;> 



and Philippine islands. It resides wholly in 
trees, and feeds on the delicious fruits of those 
climes. In descending from the top to any 
inferior part of a tree, it spreads it's mem- 
brane, and balances itself to the place which 
it is desirous of reaching, in a gentk and wary 
manner ; but^ in it's ascents, it uses a sort of 
leaping motion. 

It is called, by the different Indians, who 
inhabit these countries, the Caguang, the Co- 
lugo, and the Gigua. 

The Flying Maucauco has two young at a 
time ; which adhere firmly to the maternal 
breasts by means of their mouths and claws. 

Though this animal is most certainly a very 
distin6l species from the bat, and the^flying 
squirrel ; the genus assigned it by Linnaeus, 
who classes it among Maucaucos, is by many 
naturalists considered as somewhat doubtful. 

There seems, in facl, so little decisively 
chara61:cristic of the Maucauco, more than of 
many other animals, in the Flying Muacauco, 



that we should, perhaps, have been strongly 
tempted to reje6t any avowal of the alliance, 
had the name not been suggested by an autho- 
rity so great as that of this superlative natura- 
list. It is but just to remark, however, that 
equal obje61:ion might possibly be made to any 
other precise denomination, borrowed from a 
diiferent quadruped: so that the want of abso- 
lute perfe6lion may be as well sustained in him 
who, perhaps, approaches it the nearest, as in 
those who are unable to boast any such pre- 






CONTAINING, ^ -^r-^t^S 

1. The cougar, ^^'sj^;' i- jjj^^i^ 

2. The spotted KING-FISHER. 






The Cougar, or "I'igris Fulvus, has received 
many appellations. In both Catesby's, and Law- 
son's Carolina, it is even called the Panther; 
in Marcgrave's Brasil, and Ray's Synopsis of 
Quadrupeds, it has the name of Cugacuarana, 
whence probably was derived that of the Cou- 
gar, or Couguar of Buffon ; Schreber calls it 
Felis Concolor, and it is likewise described 
under that name in Molina's Chili. 

Nor docs the list end here: for, in South 
America, it is not only called Puma, but even 
mistaken for the lion ; and it is also, in many 
parts of America, very commonly denomi- 
nated the Red Tiger. 

But, as BufFon observes, it is neither marked 
^vith long stripes, like the tiger; nor with, 
round and full spots, like the leopard ; nor 
with annular spots, like the panther and the 
ounce. It is, he says, equal in length, but in- 
ferior in thickness, to the jaguar; having a 



small head, and a long tail. The hair, which 
is short, is nearly of one entire colour ; namely, 
a lively red, intermixed with a few blackish 
tint>, particularly on the upper par: of the 
back. The chin, neck, and all the inferior 
parts of the body, are whitisli. 

Pennant describes the Cougar as having a 
very small head; ears a little pointed; eyes 
large; chin white; back, neck, rump, and 
sides, pale brownish red, mixed with dusky 
hairs; breast, bellv, and ihsides of legs, cine- 
reous; hair on the belly long; tail dusky and 
ferruginous, tlie tip being black ; teeth of vast 
size ; claws white, the outermost claw of the 
fore-feet behig much longer than the others ; 
the body long ; and the animal standing high 
on it's ]e2:s. The lencrth, he adds, from nose 
to tail, is five feet tlirce inches, and the tail 
two feet eight. The animal puns like a cat. 

Goldsmith, though he cannot but admit, 
tliat the Cougar is vcrv different from the tiger 
of the east, says — Some, however, have 
thought proper to rank both together, and I 
will take leave to follow their example: merely 



because the Cougar is more like a tiger, in 
every thing except the colour, than any other 
animal I know ; having the head,, the body^ 
and the neck, shaped very much iu the same 
manner. Of these slight differences, words 
would give but a very faint idea ; it will be, 
therefore, sufEcient to observe, that they are 
both equally slender, and are smaller where 
the neck joins the head, than others of the 
panther kind. There is one at present in the 
Tower, and it seeiTied to me, as well as I 
could see it through the bars, that were it pro- 
perly streaked and coloured, it would in all 
things resemble a small tiger. It is, how- 
ever," the dodior adds, " of a very different 
colour; being of a deep brown, and the tail 
very long and pointed. It is rather darker on 
the back ; and, under the chin, it is a little 
whitish, as also on the lower part of the belly* 

" Of all the American animals," continues 
the doctor, this is the most formidable and 
mischievous ; even their pretended lion not 
excepted. It is said, there are several sorts of 
them ; and, as w^ell as I can remember, I Irave 
seen one or two here in England^ both differ- 


ing from the present in size and conformation. 
It is, indeed, a vain endeavour, to attempt to 
describe all the less obvious varieties in the cat 
kind. If we examine them minutely, we shall 
find the differences multiply upon us so much, 
.that instead of a history, we shall only be paid 
with a catalogue of distinflions. From such 
of them as I have seen within these last six 
years, I think I could add two animals of this 
species, that have not been hitherto described, 
and with the names of which he that shewed 
them was utterly unacquainted. But it is a 
poor ambition ! that of being eager to nnd out 
new distindlions, or adding one noxious ani- 
mal more to a list that is already suiEcientlv 
numerous. Were the knowing a new variety 
to open an unknown historv, or in the least to 
extend our knowledge, the enquiry would be 
then worth pursuing; but what signifies men- 
tioning some trifling dlfrercnce, and from 
thence becoming the authors of a new name, 
when the difference might linve originallv pra- 
cccded either from climate, soil, or indiscrimi- 
r-atc copulation 

Though little could fiill from the pen of Dr, 



Goldsmith, that v/as not, at least, ingenious ; 
few modern naturalists, it is presumed, will 
subscribe, in toto, to what he has advanced on 
the subje6t of minute discriminations, which 
not unfrequently lead to important distindions. 

AVith respedl to the Cougar, it is, most un- 
questionably, a quite different animal from 
the tiger; though it's habits, as well as it's 
conformation, are in many respe6ls similar* 

It inhabits America, from Canada to Brasil, 
and is the scourge of the colonies in all the 
hotter parts of the new world. Fierce and 
ravenous in the highest degree, rt swims over 
tlie broad rivers, and attacks cattle even in in- 
closures; and, when pressed with hunger, 
spares not even mankind. In North Ame- 
rica, it's ferocity seems to be greatly subdued 
by the rigours of the climate: the smallest 
cur, in company with it's master, makes the 
Cougar seek for security, by running up trees ; 
but then it is equally destru6llve to domestic 
animals, and constitutes the greatest nuisance 
which the planter has to encounter. 



This animal, by the agility of it's body, and 
the length of it's legs, BufFon remarks, seems 
calculated to run, and to climb trees, better 
than the jaguar. They are both, he adds, 
equally remarkable for sloth and cowardice, 
when once glutted with prey ; and seldom are 
known to attack men, except when they find 
them asleep. Travellers, who may find it 
necessary to pass the night, or halt, in the 
woods, need no other precaution, to prevent 
their approach, than that of kindling a fire. 

The Cougar delights in the lofty shades of 
the forest, where it hides itself in the covert 
of a thick tree, waiting the approach of some 
animal, chiefly the moose or other deer and, 
as one of these animals passes, drops on it, 
and instantly destroys it. Charlevoix, who 
mentions this property in the Cougar, calU 
it, by mistake, the carcajou. But, though 
deer of different descriptions are the usuai 
prey of the Cougar, it is known even to at- 
tack some of the fiercer animals. Pennant 
mentions, that the Cougar, whose skin is in 
the Museum of the Royal Society, was killed 
just as it had pulled down a wolf. 



In South America, where the Cougar greatly 
abounds, as the towns generally border on fo- 
rests, it frequently makes incursions by night 
into the very houses ; from whence it carries 
ofF fowls, dogs, and other domestic animals. 
' It is, however, but a weak and contemptible 
creature, when compared with tlie tiger ; be- 
ing scarcely able to contend with any of the 
human species singly. The negroes, and na- 
tives, are very dextrous in encountering it ; 
and some of them, for the • sole sake of it's 
skin, the fur of which is soft, and with which 
they cover themselves in the winter season, 
anxiously explore it's retreats. The weapons 
used in this apparently perilous undertaking, 
by the Indians, consist only of a lance about 
two or three yards in length, made of a pon- 
derous wood, and having it's point hardened 
by the fire, and a kind of scymitar about 
three-quarters of a yard long. Thus armed, 
the Indian waits till the Cougar makes an as- 
sault on his left hand ; which wields the lance, 
and is wrapped up in a short baize cloak. 
Sometimes the animal, aware of it's danger, 
«eems to decline the combat ; in which case, 
id antagonist endeavours to provoke it, by a 



slight touch of the lance; that, while the ani- 
mal is defending itself, he may strike a secure 
blow. As soon as the Cougar feels the lance, 
it grasps the weapon with one of it's paws ; 
and, with the other, strikes at the assailant's 
arm. It is at this critical junclure, that the 
Indian nimbly aims a blow with the scymJtar, 
hitherto concealed in his other hand, and 
hamstrings the animal. The Cougar instantly 
draws back ; but, being enraged, as suddenly 
returns to the charge. However, on receiv- 
another stroke, it is generally deprived of the 
power of motion; w^hen the Indian, after dir«- 
patching it without farther molestation, skii.s 
the animal, and cuts off the head, with which 
he returns to his companions, displaying them 
as trophies of his victory. 

This animal, we are assured, is often more 
successful against the crocodile; and is, in 
fa£t, the only quadruped, which that part ot 
the world affords, that is not afraid of the 

" It must," says Goldsmith, <* be no un- 
pleasant sight, to observe, from a place ot 



safety, this extraordinary combat between ani 
inals so terrible, and obnoxious to man/' 

When the Cougar, impelled by that ardent 
thirst which seems perpetually to consume it, 
comes down to the river'^s side, and begins to 
drink, the crocodile-, which makes no distinc- 
tion in it's prey, lifts it's head above water, to 
seize the animal ; whicli, not less rapacious 
than it's assailant, and unapprized of the 
strength of the enemy, boldly ventures to 
plunge it's claws into the eyes of the aggres- 
sor. The crocodile, thus seized in it's only 
vulnerable part, instantly dives under water ; 
and the Cougar, having fixed it's claw^s, being 
as unwilling to relinquish it's hold as it's ex- 
istence, descends with it's antagonist. There 
the combat continues, till the Cougar is 
drowned, as is sometimes the case, or escape x 
from it's disabled adversary. 

When the French first settled at Cayenne, 
the infant colony suffered greatly from the de- 
vastations of the Cougar; but, by degrees, it 
was so repelled and destroyed, that this animal 
is no longer found in the vicinity of that 


place. Tn Brasil, Paraguay, and the country 
of the Amazons, it is very frequently seen 
climbing up trees ; either in quest of prey, or 
to avoid it's pursuers. Like all other animals 
of the cat kind, it is terrified at the sight of 
fire, and seldom ventures to approach ; for, it 
not only suspe6i:s, as is imagined, it's enemies 
to be always near, but the brightness po^ver- 
fully dazzles it's nodlurnal eves. 

From the nature of this animal, which 
quenches it's thirst, BufFon says, more fre- 
quently with blood than with water, we 
might naturally suppose that it's flesh is not 
very proper for human food. It has, how e- 
vcr, been said, by some travellers, to be ex- 
tremely palatable. Piso, in particular, goes 
the )eno;th to assert, that it is as jrood and as 
white as veal ; and Charlevoix, and others, 
have compared it to mutton. But BufFon thinks 
it hardly credible, tliat it can be well tasted : 
and, therefore, he prefers the testimony of 
Dcsmarchais ;. who intimates, that the best 
tiling about this animal is it's skin, of which 
hourings are made for horses, it's flesh being 
generally lean, and of a very disagreeable fla- 


The distinguishing chara6lers of the nu- 
merous species of the King-Fisher, or Alcedo 
of Linnaeus, which comprehend a genus of 
beautiful piscivorous birds, are— that the bill is 
straight, strong, and sharp-pointed; that the 
tongue is short, and pointed ; and that the 
three lowest joints of the exterior toe are con - 
ne6lcd to the middle one. 

Of these birds, in general, many fables 
have been related by the ancients, which will 
be found more particularly noticed under our 
description of the common King-Fisher, or 
Halcyon of the poets* 

The species which we are at present to de- 
scribe, and which, we believe, was first deli- 
neated by Edwards, was brought from Suri- 
nam, of which place it is said to be a native. 

We have no authentic account of any pe- 
culiar habits by which it is distinguished from 
the various other species of the King-Fisher r 
though, indeed, there is another species, which 
bears the express name of the Surinam King- 


Fisher; and is distinguished, by Linnzeus, un- 
der the appellation of Alcedo Paradisea. Both, 
probably, though considerably different in 
their formation from each other, have the ge- 
neral habits of the genus, without any essen- 
tial variations. 

The bill of the Spotted King-Fisher i^i 
dusky ; a broad line extends from the bill on 
each side of the head ; and there are, beneath 
the eyes, narrow lines of orange. The throat, 
breast, belly, thighs, coverts beneath the tall, 
and inner coverts of the wings, are also of a 
fine orange colour. Between the back and 
neck passes a broad list, or collar, of black 
feathers, edged with white. The trown of 
the head is black, but gradually becomes green 
/ on tlie hinder part of the neck. The sides ot 
the head arc green; and the back, rump, aad 
upper sides of the wings and tail, are also ot a 
fine glossv dark green hue, variegated with 
white spots, 'i^he under sides of the quiils 
i^nd tail are of a dark ash-colour, with whitish 
5pots on their v> chs ; the tips of the quills ex- 
ternally being dusky an inch deep. The legs 
and feet arc of a reddish iksli-colour. 
— - " — . , ■- 




Of this beautiful Beetle, little more than it's 
existence is known. 

It is a native of New South Wales, but is 
probably scarce ; as our friend, in a residence 
of ten years, saw no other of the species, ex- 
cept that from which the annexed figures are 

It was brought to him, at Sidney Cove, Port 
Jackson, as an obje6l of curiosity, which had 
been found in the interior of the country. 

This gentleman immediately procured an 
exadl drawing to be made; representing, not 
only the upper and under- sides of the Beetle, 
but the covering from which it was originally 

That drawing we have copied with the ut- 
most precision, as well in it's markings, as in 
it's tints. 



The natives call this Beetle, the Morron, 
Mor-rhon, or Mor-rone ; for it is not ahvays 
easy to convey the exa£l sound of these rude 
languages, by any arrangement of letters or 
syllables. Without having been able to dis- 
cover what particular signification, if any, 
this word mav denote, as descriptive of the 
Beetle's form or qualities, we have not scrupled 
to adopt it. 

The beautiful markings, however, which 
give somewhat of an artificial . appearance to 
this Beetle, and bear very little resemblance to 
any of the numerous forms in which nature is 
generally found to adorn her off^"spring of any 
description, would make it easy for tliose na- 
turalists who are solicitous to swell the no- 
menclature of nature, to give a new and sig- 
nificant name to this very elegant and curious 

Though tlie size of the Morron Beetle, 
wliich we have figured, is cxadllv that of na- 
ture J it seems by no means certain, that the 
animal may not sometimes grow to a superior 



Indeed, from a comparison of the original 
covering, with the size of the Beetle, wc 
' should incline to suppose, that it a6lually 
" does grow larger than that which we have 
<ielineated ; and which, probably, was a young 
one, not at it's full growth 



naturalist's pocket « 



1. The six-banded ARMADILLO. 

2. The blue and RED MACAW. 










iHE Armadillo forms a genus of animals^ 
consisting of several species : the character of 
which is, that the head and upper part of the 
body are guarded by a crustaceous coverings 
the middle of the body having pliant band? 
formed of various segments and reaching 
from the back to the edge of the belly; and> 
that the animal has neither cutting^ nor canine 

The whole genus inhabit South America, 
where they are called Tatous; the more com- 
mon European name of Armadillos, having 
been given to tkem by the Spaniards. 

The Armadillo has been called, by some 
Latin authors, Echinus Brasiliensis ; and, by 
Linnxus, it is denominated, Dasypus Cingulis 
novem, Palmis tctradadlylis, Plantis pentedac- 

Buffon commences his account of this cu- 



lious animal, with observing that, when we 
talk of a quadruped, the ver^"- name seems to 
convey the idea of an animal covered wirh 
hair; as, wlien we mention a bird or a fish, 
feathers or scales present themselves to our 
imagination, and seem inseparable attributes of 
these creatures: yet Nature, as if willing to 
deviate from this characteristic uniformitv, 
and to astonish us by uncommon productions, 
manifests herself contrary to our general ideas, 
at variance with our denominations, and with 
the chara6ters wliich we have acknowledged, 
and amazes us still more bv her exceptions 
than by her laws. The quadruped animals, 
which we re2:ard as the first class of livin:: 
nature, and which are, next to man, the most 
remarkable beings of tliis world, are not in 
every thing superior, neither are they separated 
by invariable attributes. The first of these 
charatfters, from which even their name is de- 
rived, and which consists In their having four 
feet, is common to lizards, frogs, &:c. which 
differ, however, from quadrupeds, in many 
other respedls, so as to make a quite distindl 
class. The second general propertv, that of 
jToducing their young alive, is not peculiar to 


quadrupeds, since it is common with cetaceous 
monsters. The third attribute, which mio;ht 
seem, from it's being most apparent, to be the 
least equivocal, and which consists in their be- 
ing covered with hair, is ahnost the dire<St op- 
posite of the two others in several species 
which cannot be excluded from the quadruped 
class ; because, this charafteristic excepted, 
they are like them in all other respects. These 
seeming exceptions of nature, continues Buf- 
fon, being in reality nothing more than gra- 
•dations calculated to unite, in one general 
-chain, the links of the most remote existences, 
-we must not lose sight of such singular rela- 
tions, but contrive to seize them whenever 
-they present themselves to our view. The 
Armadillos, or Tatous, instead of hair, are 
covered, like turtles, cray-fish, and other ani- 
mals of the crustaceous kind, with a sort of so- 
lid crust; the pangolins arc armed with scales, 
like fish ; and the porcupines carry a kind 
of prickly feathers, the quill of which is like 
that of a bird: thus, in the class of quadru- 
peds alone, and by the most constant charac- 
teristic of the animals of that clasSy which are 
covered with hair, Nature varies in nearly ap- 


proximailng them to the three orher different 
classes ; and brings to our ideas birds, fishes 
with scales, and fishes and ether animals of 
the crustaceous kinds. We must, therefore, 
be cautious, in judging of the nature of beings 
by one particular chara6leristic, which would 
continually lead us into errors : two- or three 
chara6lers, however general, are not ahvavs 
sufficient; audit is only, as Buffon frequently 
observes, by the re-union of all the attributes, 
and the enumeration of all the characters, 
that we can ascertain the essential forms of 
every produ6lion of nature^ A good descrip- 
tion, adds Buffon, and no definitions ; an ex- 
position more exa6l on the differences than the 
analogy; and a particular attention to excep- 
tions, and almost imperceptible gradations ^ 
are the true rules, and the only means, he 
maintains, of knowing the nature of every 
thing: and, if all the time lost in definitions, 
had been employed in good descriptions, with; 
an ex3.€t method, we should not, concludes 
Buffon, have now found Natural History in. 
her cradle ; we should have had less trouble in 
taking off her baubles, and in disencumbering 
her of her swaddling-cloaths ! We should., 



perhaps,, have anticipated her slow discove- 
ries; since we should have written more for 
science, and less against error. 

The Armadillo is covered, like the tortoise, 
"with a shell, or rather a numher of shells, 
which prevent it's true proportions from be- 
ing immediately apparent. At first view, the 
animal seems a roundish mishapen mass ; with 
a long head, and a very long tail, sticking out 
at the two extremities, as if unconne6led with 
the rest of the body. It is of different sizes, 
from a single foot, or less, in length, to three 
feet and upwards : and is covered w^ith a shell 
divided into several pieces, and folding over 
each other, like the tail of a lobster. The 
differences in the size of these animals, and 
the different dispositions of their armour, as 
divided into a variety of flexible stripes or 
bands, have been generally considered as con- 
stituting so many distinct species, to which suit- 
able names are given : all, however, are 
cloathed with this partial coat of mail, the 
conformation of which is justly esteemed one 
of the greatest curiosities in the ample field 




This shell, which in every respect resem- 
bles a bony substance, covers the head, the 
neck, the back, the sides, and the rump, as 
w tW as the entire length of the tail. Indeed, 
the only parts uncovered with this invulnerable 
-armour, are- the throat, breast, and belly ; and 
■even these, which appear only to have a white 
skin, resembling that of a plucked fowl, are 
in fa6l cloathed with shells in an incipient 
state, of a substance similar to those on the back. 
The skin, therefore, in the softest parts, seems 
to have a strong tendency to ossification,, 
though it only compleatly takes place in such 
situations as have the smallest degree of fric- 
tion, and ar€ the most exposed to external in- 
juries. The shells, which lie in bands over 
the body, are conne6led by yellow membranes, 
which give the animal a motion in it's back,, 
and accommodate the armour to every neces- 
sary inflexion. The bands are various, in. 
number and proportion. In general, however, 
there are twelve pieces, one of which covers 
the shoulders, and the other the i-ump. Be*l 
tween these, on the back, tiic bands are placed, 
which fold over each other, and communi-' 
cate motion to the whole : having openings 



across, as well as along the back, so that the 
animal is enabled to move in all diredlions^ 
One species of the Armadillo has three of 
these bands; another six; a third eight; a 
fourth nine; a fifth twelve; and a sixth, eigh- 
teen. The shells are all covered with a thin, 
sleek, and transparent skin, variously coloured 
in the different kinds, but usually of a dirty 
igrey, or rather a sand-colour. 

Though these shells may well defend the 
Armadillo from a feeble enemy, they afford 
but a slight prote6lion against any powerful 
opponent. Nature has, therefore, with her 
usual bounty, given this animal the same 
means of security as that with which it has 
endued the pangolin and the hedgehog : for, 
the instant it finds itself attacked, it draws in 
it's head, leaving no part visible but the tip of 
the nose ; and, in proportion, as the apprehen- 
sion of danger Is increased, augmenting it's ex- 
ertions to become more secure, it tucks up it's 
feet under it's belly, and unites it's two extre- 
mities together, where the tail appears like a 
band to strengthen the rolled part into a sort 
of ball, flatted on each side. In this condi- 


tion it remains till it's fears have entirely sub- 
sided ; and it is thus often tossed about at the 
pleasure of other animals, with little appear- 
ance of either life or motion. Whenever the 
Indians catch it, which is always in this form, 
they drag the poor animal close to the fire, 
and thus compel it to expand itself, and sub- 
mit to fate. 

Before the discovery of America, the Ar- 
madillo was entirely unknown ; nor does the 
old world appear to contain a single species of 
this extraordmary animal. 

The different species are extremely similar 
in their manner of life. They are a peaceful 
and inoffensive race ; except, indeed, that 
when ihey find their way into gardens, tluy 
destroy the choicest fruits and vegetable pro- 
ductions. Though natives of the warmest 
parts of America, they bear the severity of 
colder climates without any apparent injury ; 
and arc often exhibited in England, among our 
colIc6lions of wild beasts. I'heir motion 
seems to be a quick walk; but they can nei- 
ther run, leap, nor climb up trees: so that, if 



they are once found in an open place, they 
have no possible means of escaping. In this 
extremity, they commonly make towards their 
Ivoles as fast as possible ; or, that being found 
impra6licable, ihey dig a new hole before the: 
enemy arrives. A few moments sufhce for 
this business, as they burrow with all the cx^ 
pedition of a mole: being furnished with very 
large, strong, and crooked claws, usually four 
on each foot. They are sometimes caught by 
the tail, while making their way into the earth ; 
but so difficult is it to draw them back, that 
they readily leave their tail in the hand if any 
great force be exerted. The Indians, sensibie 
of this, seldom pull them violently ; but, iu 
general, one holds tlie tail, while another digs 
the surrounding earth, and thus they contrive 
to take the animal alive. The instant it per- 
ceives itself in the power of it*s enemy, it rolls 
itself up, and patiently awaits whatever torture 
the captor chuses to infiicl. 

The flesh, especially of the smaller species 
\vhen young, is said to be verv delicious food, 
so that we may naturally suppose these ani- 
mals find little mercy. They arc, indeed, 



pursued with unceasing industry ; and, though 
they ofter burrow verv deep, the Indians con- 
trive to force them from their subteixanean re- 
treats ; either by fiUing the holes w ith smoke, 
or with water. A small species of dogs are 
also purposely trained to the discovery and 
persecution of these animals; by which, when 
at any distance from their burrows, thev are 
speedily overtaken. It is in vain that the ani- 
mal rolls itself up ; for the hunter is at hand, 
and soon seizes his prey. When, however, 
they happen to be near a precipice, thev often 
efFcdt their escape; as thev can, when rolled 
up, devolve fiom rock to rock, without the 
smallest degree of danger. 

The smaller species are verv frequently 
caught in snares placed by the sides of rivers, 
and in low moist grounds, whicli these mo<t 
frequent; while the larger species ciiiefiv re- 
>ide In drv .situations, and at a distance from 
the sea. As thev never venture far from their 
retreats, and seldom qui-t them at all till niglit, 
it requires some skill and perseverance to inter- 
cept them in their way. 



Almost every species of the Armadillo turn 
up the ground, like the hog, in search of po- 
tatoes, and other roots, which constitute a 
principal part of their food. They live also 
on melons, and other succulent vegetables ; 
and will eat flesh, whenever they can procure 
it. They prey on worms, small fish, and wa- 
ter inse6ls ; and, when they can catch them, 
even on birds. 

Though all roll themselves up into balls, 
those which are furnished with the smallest 
number of bands find the greatest difficulty in 
doing this compleatly. 

The rattle-snake frequently takes up it's re- 
sidence in the burrows of the Armadillo ; from 
which circumstance, these animals have been 
supposed to live in peculiar amity. But the 
fa6l seems to be, that neither is qualified to in- 
jure the other; and thustl^cy ccmtinue togetlici, 
because neither chuses to quit a convenient 
abode. The Armadillo breeds monthly, and 
produces four at a birth, ^fhe shell, in powder, 
is not only esteemed sudorific ; but said, also, to 
constitute a potent remedy for the lues vcncrc:i,. 



The Six Banded Armadillo, or Encoubert 
of BuiFon, which is the animal we have figu- 
red, inhabits Brasil and Guiana. It is one of 
the larger species ; and has the shelly covering 
composed of large angular pieces, elegantly 
disposed. The shell of the head is large, and 
in one piece to the moveable streak of the 
neck ; the shells on the shoulders, and on tlie 
rump, are also in single angular pieces. The 
head and snout are like those of a pig ; the 
eyes are small and hollow; the tongue is nar- 
row and sharp; and the ears, which are short 
and naked, are of v . brown colour, like the 
skin of the joints. There are eighteen teeth 
of moderate length in each jaw ; and five long 
toes of a roundish form, but rather narrow, 
on each foot. The tail is large in it's orgin, 
but gradually diniinlshcs towards tiie extremi- 
ty, where it is very slender, though round at 
the end. Between the six bands in the back, 
as well as on the neck and bellv, arc a few 
scattered hairs. The colour of the bodv is 
reddish and yellow, and the animal is com- 
monly thick and fat. It drinks often, and 
feeds on fruits, roots, and even birds. 


This grand and beautiful bird, the Psitta- 
cus, Ararauna of LinniEus, is by Buffon cal- 
led the blue Ara, and by Edwards, and other 
English naturalists, the Blue .and Yellow Ma- 

BuiFon says, it is easy to describe this bird : 
the upper side of the body, the wings, and the 
tail, are entirely azure, and the under side is 
a fine yellow. This yellow is rich and vivid, 
and the blue is glossy and sparkling.. The In- 
dians admire them greatly, and celebrate their 
beauty in songs ; the usual burden of which is — 
" Canidejouve, Canide Jouve, heura oncebe." 
Yellow Bird, Yellow Bird, how charming ! 

We are of opinion, that BufFon had better 
have called it, like these Indians, the Yellow, 
than the Blue Ara, or Macaw, if he was 
averse to taking both predominating colours ; 
since the Red Macaw has also a predominating 
Blue, and is called the Red and Blue Macaw^ 
by Edwards and other naturalists. 



According to BufFon, the two descriptions 
never mingle, though they frequent the same 
spots, and Hve in harmony; notwithstanding 
tliis, he says that they are of the same species, 
and inhabit the same parts of South America. 
Their voices are somewhat different, for the 
Indians can distinguish them by the cry alone; 
it is said, that the Blue and Yellow Macaw 
does not pronounce the word Ara so distinclly 
as the Red and Blue. 

Edwards says, that this bird is the Arara- 
canga of the Brasilians; and, that it is more 
rare than the Red Macaw. They are, how- 
ever, prodigiously alike in every thing but their 
plumage. Albin, he observes, has given a very 
imperfeiSl figure of this bird, and erroneously 
calls it the hen Macaw, supposing it to be th^ 
hen of the Scarlet and Blue Macaw, which i 
a somewhat larger bird. 

They arc the largest of the Pai rot kind; 
and frequently a yard in length, from the tip 
of the bill, to the extremity of the tail, which 
is alwavs very long. 



This grand and beautiful Moth is a native 
of New South Wales ; and, though certainly 
very superior in magnitude, as well as in it^s 
general hues, and dlfFerent in several other re- 
spells, from the English Emperor Moth, it 
gave us, at first glance, in consequence of the 
• not very dissimilar largest eye-like spots on the 
superior wings, so much idea of that inse6l, 
that we have been induced to describe it under 
the appellation of the Emperor Moth of New 
South Wales. We confess, however, that 
we were not a little tempted, by the singular 
appearance of the horn, or proboscis, circukrly 
curved like the horn of a ram, but springing 
from the nose like that of a rhinoceros, to 
have given it a name expressive of these dis- 
tinguishing characters : but, we must also 
acknowledge, we found it difficuk to unite the 
two semblances under one general denomina- 
tion ; and, therefore, have contented ourselves 
with the first more simple idea. 



This Moth is dehneated of it's exa6l natu- 
ral size. The general colour is richly incar- 
nate; the undervvings being somewhat duskv 
There are eye-like spots, of different size? , 
both on the upper and under wings ; those c: 
the lower being very considerably the lease 
These spots are of a dark or dusky brown. 
The abdomen, which is annulated is cloathed 
with long dark hair, longest and darkest to- 
wards the shoulders. On the belly is a larg. 
oblong or oval spot, of a reddish flesh-colour 

We have no information respecfling the ap 
pearance of this elegant Motli, either in it y 
caterpillar or chrysalis state : a deficiency 
which there is too often reason to lament, in 
the descriptions of foreign inse^ls. 


naturalist's pocket 


N» xxvir. /^^^f ■ 

I ^ f ■• 
CONTAINING, \^ C-,- ■ 

1. The pied SEAL. ^ ^ ^^^^^ 







The Seal, or Phoca Vitulina of Linnaeus, 
is a genus of pinnated quadrupeds: viz. qua- 
drupeds having fin-like feet ; fore legs buried 
deep in the skin ; and hind legs pointing quite 
backwards. Of the Seal tribe, there are nu- 
merous species ; their genericalchara6ler being, 
that they have cutting teeth, with two canine 
teeth in each jaw ; five palmated toes on each 
foot; and a body thick at the shoulders, but 
tapering towards the tail. 

The ancients were acquainted with the Seal, 
under the name of Phoca; > and Aristotle pro- 
perly describes it to be of an ambiguous na- 
ture, intermediate between aquatic and terres- 
ti-ial animals. All, however, that the anci- 
■ents have written about the Phoca, BufFon is 
of opinion, must be referred to the Small 
Black Seal' of India and the Levant. Aris- 
totle could not have had any knowledge of the 
Great Seal of the Frozen Sea ; because, in his 


time, all the north of Europe and Asia was 

BuiFon observes, that the Seal is formed on 
tlie model of the Tritons, Syrens, and other 
Sea Deities of the Poets ; who fabled them 
with the head of a man, the body of a qua- 
druped, and the tail of a fish. Perhaps, we 
may safely add that, it is the true and sole 
foundation of the Mermaid. At least, we 
find a wonderful coincidence between the fa- 
bulous attributes of that supposed animal, and 
the authenticated accounts of the Seal. The 
appearance of the Mermaid, has always been 
considered as foreboding a tempest, and tlie 
Seal, it is remarked, by BufFon and others, 
instead of beinsr terrihed bv thunder and li^ht- 
ning, seems to be delighted on such occasions. 
It comes ashore in storms; and even quits 
it's icy abode to avoid the shock of the tem- 
pestuous waves. These animals, at such times, 
sport in great numbers along the shore: the 
tremendous confii6^ appears to divert them, 
and the fall of heavy rains to enliven and re- 
fresh them. Pennant remarks, that they fro- 
Ji'^- greatly in their element, and will sport 



without fear about ships and boats • which 
may, he thinks, have given rise to the fable of 
Sea Nymphs and Syrens ^ and our fishermen 
have frequently seen two young Seals sucking;; 
their dam at the same time, while she stood 
in a perpendicular position amidst the waves. 
Even the comb, with which painters have 
depi6bed the Mermaid, may be accounted for^ 
without any very extravagant stretch of the 
imagination : by supposing, that these rivals of 
the poets in their love of the marvellous, 
having heard that one species of the Seal has 
a large comb ; placed an artificial weapon of 
that name in the hand of their Mermaid, in- 
stead of the comb-like excrescence, about five 
or six inches long, hanging from the end of 
the upper jaw of tlie male Sea Lion, as de- 
scribed by Dr. Parsons in the Pliilosophical 

Dampier says, that Seals are seen by tlio'i- 
sands an the Island of Juan Fernandez, wdicrs- 
tfhe young bleat like hmhs : but that none arc 
found in the South Sea, north of tlie Equa- 
tor, till latitude 21 ; norrdid he ever see thciik 
in any part of the W e3t Indi-ss, except the Bay 


of Campeachy, or any where at all in the 
East Indies. 

They are found in greatest multitudes to- 
wards the North and the South: swarming 
near the Ardlic circle, and the lower parts of 
South America, in both oceans ; as well as 
near the southern end of Terra del Fuego, and 
even among the floating ice as low as Soutli 
Latitude 60. 21. They also inhabit the Cas- 
pian Sea; the Lake Aral; and the Lakrs 
Baikal and Oron, which are fresh waters. 
In these last, ihev are of smaller size than 
those which frequent salt waters ; but thev zic 
so fat, as to seem almost shapeless. In Lake- 
Baikal, some are covered with silvery hairs ; 
while others are yellowish, and have a large 
dark-coloured mark on tho hind part of the 
back, covering almost a third part of the bod'^. 
'I'hose of the Caspian Sea, where they ahso- 
U?toiy swarm, vary prodigiously in tlieir co- 
lours: some arc wholly white, others entlrelv 
black ; sonie of a yellowish white, some mouse- 
coloured, and sonie s[X)ttcd like a leopard. 
Thoy creep on shore, and are killed by the 
kuufvTi; u> fast, as they land ; ver are followed 


by a vast succession of others, which all meet 
the same fate. It seems singular, that the 
Seals of the Caspian Sea are said to be very 
tenacious of life ; when it is a well known 
fa61:, that almost the smallest blow on the nose 
kills those of Europe. Perhaps, however, this. 
effe6i: may be unknovv'n to th.e inhabitants of 
those parts. At the approach of winter, tliey 
go up the Jaik, and are killed in prodigious 
numbers on the ice. Jvlanv arc destroyed by 
the wolves and jackals ; but the Seal hunters,, 
who seek them chiefly for their skins and oil, 
watch caiefully the haunts of the Seals, to 
drive away their four-footed enemies. 

The female brings forth in autiuTtn; usually 
two young at a time, and never more than, 
three or four. She suckles them sitting on her 
hind legs, in caverns, or in rocks, the lirst six 
or seven weeks^ after which they take to lh<? 

Pennant says, that tlie Seal cannot continue 
long under water: but frequently rises to take 
breath, and is often seen floating on the waves ; 
and we are of opinion, that BulFon, and other 

iiivtui'alis LS, 


naturalists, are quite mistaken, when they as- 
sert that the foramen ovale of the Seal is com- 
pleatly open, and that the animal can therefore 
exist without respiration. 

The Seal sleeps, in summer, on a rock or 
bank of Sand; and, when alarmed, precipi- 
tates into the sea. If it happens to he too dis- 
tant, it scrambles along, violently flinging up 
the sand and gravel wiih ic*s hlud feei, and 
uttering: most lamentable moanin<^s: on beinq: 
overtaken, however, it makes a- vigorous de- 
fence with it's feet and teeth. 

The. young Seal, which is for some short 
space white and woollv, is particularly docile ; 
distinguishing it's mother's voice, and paving 
her great obedience. The Seal, in fa«^\, seems 
€usceptible of education ; and has been aclually 
taught to salute persons with it's lips as well as 
it*s voice, obey if s keeper, and givem.any other 
proofs of intelligence. lt*s brain is laii;er in 
propoytion than that of man ; and, in sagacity^ 
it exceeds most other quadrupeds: this is mani- 
fested hy it's docility, and social qualities; it's 
Strong sexual instincl i. and it's great atiemioa 



to it's young; as well as by it's voice, which 
, is more expressive and more modulated, than 
in other animals. 

The Seal feeds on all sorts of fish, but never 
goes to any great distance from land : it is 
frequently eaten by voyagers ; but is chiefly 
hunted for the sake of the oil and skin. A 
young Seal often yields eight gallons of oil j 
and the skin is useful for covering trunks, &c.; 
as well as making leather of peculiar excel- 

The Pied Seal, represented in the annexed 
print, and which differs little else than in co- 
lour from the common species, was first fi- 
gured and described by Pennant. It's nose is 
taper and elongated ; it*s fore feet are furnished 
\vith five toes, very distin(9:, though inclosed in 
a membrane, the claws being long and straight ; 
and the hind feet, which are very broad, have 
also five distin6t toes in a similar membrane, 
that expands to the form of a crescent, the 
claws just reaching the margin. 

On the first capture of this Pied Seal, which 



was taken near Chester, in May 1766, it's skin 
was naked, like that of a porpoise; only the 
head, and a small part beneath each leg, being 
then hairy. Before it died, Mr. Pennant says, 
the hair began to grow on other parts. The 
fore-part of the head was black; the hind 
part of the head, as well as the throat, was 
white; beneath each fore leg was also a white 
spot : the hind feet were of a dirty white ; and 
all the rest of the animal was intensely black. 

" I believe," says Mr. Pennant. the Pied 
Seals vary in the disposition of their colours : 
that given by M. De BufFon had only the beliv 
white. These species, according to tiiat great 
writer, frequent the coast of the Adriatic. Tiie 
length of that described by M. De Bulfon 
was seven feet and a half: that which I saw 
was very much less ; and, probably, a young 

Seals are said, by Dr. Borlase, to be seen in 
greatest plenty, on the coast of Cornwall, in 
May, June-, and July ; some as large as a cow 
of moderate size, and others not bigger than a 
small calf. 


For the description of this elegant bird, lit- 
tle more will be necessary, than an almost lite- 
ral transcript of the account given by our mi- 
nute and accurate English naturalist, Mr, 
George J^dwards, which accompanied his ori* 
ginal very beautiful figure. 

This bird, Edwards tells us, differs from om 
Common Heron, in being somewhat bigger, 
and of a brown or ash-colour on it's back; 
as well as in having no white feathers on it's 
forehead, or black spots on it's sides below the 
bottom of the neck. 

Some of it's measurements are as follow : 
from the point of the bill, to the angle of the 
mouth, is full six inches; each wing, wlicn 
closed, is eighteen inches long; the leg-bone, 
from the knee to the foot, is six inches and u 
half; the middle toe, to the end of the nail or 
claw, is five inches and a quarter; and the Ic^^f 



are bare of feathers three inches above the 

The bill is straight, sharp-pointed', and 
toothed in both upper and under mandible to- 
^vards the point. The upper mandible is 
channelled, and of a blackish colour ^ the nos- 
trils being placed in the channels^ and pretty- 
near the head : and, between the nostrils and 
the eye, the skin, which is void of feathers, is 
of a greenish yellow colour. The lower man- 
dible is yellow, or orange-coloured. Ths eves 
are placed over the angles of the raouih. 
Long black feathers wholly cover the top of 
tlie head ; forming a crest of seven or eight 
inches long, if measured from the base of the 
bill backward : the sides and under part of the 
head are white. The neck is covered with 
long slender feathers of a browTiish colour, 
barred transversely with dusky on the hinder- 
part. The feathers on the fore-part of the 
neck have broad white dashes down their mid- 
dle; being black on each side, with reddish 
brown edges, which makes an agreeable varia- 
tion. Tlic back, and upper side of the wings and 
tail, are of a brownish ash-colour: the covert 



feathers of the wings are lighter; and the quill 
feathers of the wings, and the tail-feathers, 
are darker. The skin which connefts the 
joints of the wing in it's upper part, is covered, 
both on the upper and under sides, with small 
dusky feathers having reddish tips. The inner 
coverts of the wings, and the sides under 
them, are of a blueish ash-colour. The breast 
is white; spotted with largish black spots, 
having a slight intermixture of reddish brown. 
The lower belly, and covert feathers under the 
tail, are white. The back is covered with ash- 
coloured down, which is hid by the long fea- 
thers springing from the shoulders. The up- 
per parts of the thighs are of a reddish brown ; 
the knees, and the bare spaces above them, are 
covered with yellow scales ; and the legs, from 
the knees downwards, as well as the feet, have 
scales of a black or dusky colour. The claws 
are black, the middle ones being pe6linated ; 
and the outer toe is for a little way united by a 
web to the middle toe. The toes, especially 
the back toe of each foot, are much longer, 
in proportion to the legs, than in the crane 



*' Thisbird,'^ Edwards adds, " was brought 
well preserved from Hudson's Bay. I can- 
not,'* says he, " discover any description 
agreeing with the above, so shall pronounce 
it a non-descript. This is one of the biggest 
of the Heron-kind ; but Mr. Catesby has de- 
scribed one of North America, seemingly to 
me much larger. He has given a figure of 
the head only as big as the life ; he makes the 
bill measure, from the point to the angles of 
the mouth, seven inches and three quarters ; 
and, if the other parts bear proportion wiili 
the measures of the above-described, it must 
be much bigger than mine." See Catcsbv's 
large Crested Heron, in the Appendix to his 
Natural History of Carolina, dec. 




The very curious fish represented in the 
annexed figure, was originally brought from 
Madagascar, where it is by no means un- 

Willughby, in his book, De Piscibus, has 
given a print similar in it's general form, but 
of a quite different surface, irregularly spotted; 
and he calls it, Pisciculus Cornutus, or the 
Little Horned Fish. 

The species are said to be numerous ; and, 
therefore, it seems evident that Willughby 's 
fish, if not a variety in the species wliich we 
are to describe, was at least of the same genus. 

To this, indeed, the epithet Little might not 
be ill applied ; since the objed from which it 
was originally taken did not exceed six inchest 
and a half in lengthy including both the horns 
and tlie tail. 


This Horned Fish, or Pisciculus-Cornutus, 
for the figure of which we are indebted to Ed- 
wards, is of a squarish figure; the back being 
the narrowest part, and the belly the widest*. 
A thick and strong horny case, which is fixed, 
and not in the smallest degree pliable, cpvers the 
entire body ; it*s surface being divided by lines 
into sexangular parts, with a sort of asterism, 
or star-like figure, marked in the centre of 
each. The body is wholly of a duskv colour; 
but the irides are of an orange red. The 
mouth is small, and the teeth are long and 

The Horns, which give name to this fisli, 
are four in number : two springing forwards, 
from above the eyes;, and the other two, 
which spring from the plane of tlie bellv, ex- 
tending backwards towards the tall. I'hcse 
horns are of the same duskv hue as the lighter 
parts of the body. 

On cacli side of the bodv, there is a fin ; 
and there is also one on the hinder part of the 
back, and another on the bellv behind the vent. 
The tail has Hkevvisc a fin, which is remarka- 


bly long. All these fins, which pass through 
holes in the horny coat or covering of the 
fish, have full play ; so that the fins and tail 
are as loose and pliable as those of any other 

Edwards, who opened this fish, informs us 
that he found in it no spinal bone, as in other 
fishes; nor, indeed, any other bone whatever : 
hut, instead of them, some cartilaginous sub- 
stances communicating with the fins and tail, 
in order to give them motion. 

These Horned Fish are not peculiar to the 
oriental seas, being frequently seen in our 
West-India islands. 'I'o us it appears, from 
their peculiar corneous covering, which makes 
them as well the Horny as the Horned Fish, 
that this tribe form a link nearly approaching 
that of the cruotaccous or shelly inhabitants of 
the ocean, in the great chain which seems to 
bind universal nature. 


naturalist's pocket 





. The WOLF. 

. The whistle INSECT. 





The Wolf, or Canis Lupus of Linnaeus, is 
an animal of universal dread and detestation, 
V. herever it inhabits. The Greeks called it, 
Av.'toj ; and the Romans, Lupus. In Ita- 
lian, it is Lupo ; in Spanish, Lobo ; in Ger- 
man, WolfF; in^ Swedish, Ulf; in Polish, 
Wilk ; and in French, Loup. 

Though dogs often far more resemble the 
Wolf, than each other; and are so internally 
alike, that scarcely any diflerence can be per- 
ceived by the most ingenious anatomist; 
which considerations have induced naturalists 
of the highest celebrity to regard the ^'i^olf as 
the dog in it's original state of savage free- 
dom : that opinion appears, at present, to be 
doubtful; notwithstanding Linna;us, Pennant, 
and others, have classed them in the same ge- 
nus with the Dog. T\\q natural antipathy 
which the two animals bear to each other; 
the longer time which the Wolf goes witli 
young, being u hundred days, while the Dog 



only goes sixty; the Wolf living twenty years, 
and the Dog but fifteen: are considered, by 
Buffon, and others, as forming a distin^lion, 
and drawing a line, which must for ever keep 
them asunder. Catesby, however, declares 
that thev intermix ; and that tamed Wolves 
were the only original Dogs of America. 

The Wolf, from the tip of the nose to the 
insertion of the tail, is commonly about three 
feet seven inches long, and about two teet £ve 
inches high ; while our great breed of mastiffs 
seldom exceed three feet by two. It's hair, in 
general, is a union of black, brown, and grev, 
extremely rough and hard, but mixed towards 
the roots with a sort of fur of an asli-colour. 

Pennant says, that il has *' a long head; 
pointed nose; curs cre61: and sharp ; tail bushv, 
bending down, and the tip black; long legged; 
hair pretty long; teeth large; head and neck 
cinereous ; bodv generally pale brown, tinged 
with yellow; sometimes white; sometimes 
black ; and taller than a large greyhound.'* 

Ill comparing the Wolf with any of our 



Dogs — -the great Dane or mongrel Greyhound, 
for instance — it will appear to have the legs 
shorter, the head larger, the muzzle thicker, 
the eyes smaller and more separated from 
each other, and the ears shorter and fliraighter. 
It seems in every respe6i: stronger than the 
Dog; and the superior length of the hair aids 
this appearance. I'he visage of the AVolf is 
most distinguished from that of the Dog, by 
the eye ; which opens slantingly upwards, in 
the same ,dire6^ion with the nose, while that 
^of the Dog opens more at right angles with 
the nose, as in man. The colour of the eye- 
balls, which are of a fiery green, give a fierce 
-and^fonuidable air to the WolPs aspe6l. 

The Wolf possesses strength, speed, agility, 
and cunning, to. obtain largely the animal 
food on which it preys ; yet, in sjiite of these 
advantages, it is said frequently to pferish for 
want of sufficient provision. , The. terror of 
the hpman race, and destru6tive to domestic 
aniimlsr, man has every where set a price, oii 
it's.head^^ and, stimulated by gain, what hope 
JCa|a reaspnably ^b^.pnt&ylLained, that aj)y., tj)iitg 
'Will .langv>e&<:ape th^ perseveriaig stratagems of 



human cupidity ? Compelled to hide in forests, 
where the few animals found naturally exert all 
their powers to elude the voracious destroyer, 
it finds it's food but little proportioned to it's 
•rapacity. Dull, and pusillanimous, as it is by 
nature, being often reduced to the verge of fa- 
mine, want renders it ingenious, and necessity 
inspires it with courage. Pressed by hunger^ 
it ventures to attack those animals which are 
under the protection of man; and readily car- 
ries ofF sheep, lambs, or small dogs. Succeed- 
ing in a first excursion, it frequently returns ; 
till, w^ounded or hard pressed, by the shep- 
herds or their dogs, it conceals itself all -day . 
in the thickest coverts, and now^ ventures out 
only at night. Then, indeed, it scours the 
countf)'- ; peering round the villages, and car- 
rying ofF whatever animals it finds unprotect- 
ed. It attacks sbeepfolds ; and even scratches 
up, and undermines, the threshokk of doors 
where sheep are housed ; when, entering furi- 
ously, it kills the whole flock before it begins 
to carry off a single carcase. With a whole 
sheep in i^'s mouth, however, it can outrun the 
shepherd. Should these sallies be unattended 
with success, it returns to- the forest: there 


-it searches about with avidity ; and, following 
.the track of wild beasts, ardently pursues 
them, in the hope that they will be stopped 
and seized by some other Wolf, with whom 
it may share the spoil. At length, becoming 
famished in the highest degree, it loses all idea 
of fear; attacks women, children, and even 
men ; becomes maddened by excessive agita- 
tion ; rages with unbridled fury ; and falls a 
vidlim to distradion. 

Such is th^ account given by BufFon, of the 
progress of insatiable hunger in this voracious 
and terrific animal. 

Comparing it with the Dog, he admits that 
they appear formed on one model ; but says, that 
the Wolf exhibits beneath a mask the charac- 
ter of the Dog. The figure is similar, but the 
result is compleatly opposite. Their natural 
dispositions are so much at variance, that they 
seem repugnant by nature, and inimical by in* 
stinft. A young dog trembles at the first 
glance of a AV^olf : the scent, though un- 
known, excites such aversion, that the little 
animal runs quivering to it's master's feet. A 



Strong dog bristles up at the sight ; and testi- 
fies it's animosity by an instantaneous attack. 
They never meet without either flying or 
fighting, and the combat is only concluded by 
death. If the Wolf conquers, it tears and 
devours it's prey: the dog, more generous, 
is contented with remaining vi6lor ; seems to 
think, " that the body of a dead enemy does 
not smell well;** and leaves the carcase for 
birds or beafts of prey. The Wolves, indeed, 
devour each other; and, when one is much 
wounded, those which discover it's blood, fol- 
low the track, and dispatch the unfortunate 

' The young Wolf may be tamed ; but, BufFon 
says, it feels no attachment, resumes it's feroci- 
ous characflrer with age, and returns to it's sa^ 
vage state the first convenient opponunity. It is 
an unsocial animal, and usually shuns even 
it's own species. During hard weathery how- 
ever, Wolves assemble in vast troops, and 
make dreadful bowlings. Horses generaiiv 
defend themselves against their attacks, but all 
weaker animals become dieir prey. They are 
wonderfullv suspicious, and sally forth witJi 

great j 


great caution. Throughout France, according 
to Pennant, the peasants are ohliged nightly to 
house their flocks. They destroy Wolves by 
dogs, pit-falls, traps, or poison; and, when one 
is killed, the head is carried through the vil^ 
lages, and a small reward collected from the 
inhabitants. The hunters clothe their dogs, 
and guard their necks with spiked collars, to 
preserve them from the terribly large and 
sharp teeth of these animals. 

The Wolf inhabits the Continents of Eu- 
rope, Asia, and America; including Kamts- 
chatka, and even as high as the Ar6lic Circle. 
It is unknown in Africa ; notwithstanding what 
is Said by M. Adanson, and other naturalists, 
particularly among the French, who have mis- 
taken it for the hyaena. 

This destructive animal once greatly in- 
fested Elngland; till King i'xlgar, by com- 
muting the punishment of ceitain crimes into 
the acceptance of a number of Wolves tongues 
from each criminal, soon diminished the breed. 
It was not, however, quite extirpated: for, 
some centuries after, Wolves had again 



increased to such a degree as to become the 
cbje6l of royal attention ; and, accordingly, 
Edward I. issued out his mandate to Peter 
Corbet, to superintend, and assist in, their 
compleat destrudlion. From England and 
Wales they are supposed to have been extir- 
pated about five hundred years ; and the last 
Wolf known to have been killed in any part 
of the island of Great Britain, was destroyed 
in 1680, by the famous Sir Ewen Cameron, 
in Scotland, according to ihe tradition of that 

BuiFon, however, with more of nationalitv 
than might have been expe6led from a man of 
such enlarged research, appears unwilling to 
•admit that Great Britain has yet been able io 
free herself from these ravenous and fierce ani- 
mals, which still continue to baffie all the 
force and dexterity of France : and pertina- 
ciously, though ingeniously, maintains a be- 
lief, or would at least lead others to believe, in 
their present existence, even while he feels It 
necessary to acknowledge, that he has never 
asserted it as a positive fu£l. 

•« Some 


" Some English authors,'* says he, "who 
treat of British Zoology, have reproached me 
for maintaining, that Wolves still exist in 
the northern parts of their island. I never 
did affirm this as a fa6t; but only said — I 
vvas assured, that W olves stiil existed in Scot- 
land.'* Lord Morton, then President of the 
Royal Society, a Scotsman worthy of the 
greatest credit and respe6l, and proprietor of 
large territories in that country, assured me of 
this fadl in the year 1756. To his testimony 
I still adhere, because it is positive; and be- 
cause the assertion of those who deny the fa6t, 
amounts to a negative evidence only.'* 

Pennant quotes BufFon's origiiial assertion 
- the English pretend to have cleared their 
island of Wolves ; I am assured, however, 
that they still exist in Scotland :" and, observ- 
ing that he must have been greatly misinform- 
ed, " I have," says Pennant, " travelled 
into almost every corner of that country j but 
could not learn that there remained even ihe 
memory of those animals among the okbst 
people." In Irel^ind^, it seems, they continued 
longer; for one was killed there in 1710; 



A^'hen the last presentment for killing Wolves, 
IS related, in Smith's History of Cork, to have 
been made in that country, 

- These animals, which the vast forests on 
the Continent of Europe will probably always 
preserve, except pressed by extreme hunger, 
commonly fly from man i but, when once 
they have tasted human blood, they appear to 
give it the preference: " such," -says Pennant, 
** were the Wolves of the Gevaudan, of 
which so many strange tales were told. Th.e 
French peasants call these, Loups Garoux ; 
and suppose them to be possessed wiih som.e 
evil spirit. Such was the Were Wulf of the 
old Saxon." 

When the Wolf is wounded with a buHct, 
it cries ; but, while dispatc'nlng with a blud- 
f^eon, according to BufFon, ne^'cr complains'. 
It is a very 'Any snd suspicious animal, and is 
faid ta avoid cattle tied by a rape ; but, on 
fallniij!; into a snare, such is it's terror, that it 
may be killed, or taken alive, without resist- 
ance. It allows itself to be chained, muzzled, 
and led about, without exhibiting the smallest 

r.vniptom of resentment or discontent, 
' ' The 


The senses of the Wolf are exquisite ; par- 
■ticularly it's sense of smelling, which often 
■ extends farther than it's sight. It stops on the 
: borders of the forest ; smells on all sides ; and 
receives the emanations of living or dead ani- 
I mals brought from a distance by the wind. 

' The female is followed by troops of males, 
while in heat, which is about fifteen days, 
usually at the beginning of winter ; and the 
chief favourite is frequently killed by the rest. 
When near her time, she prepares a soft bed 
of moss, and brings forth from five to nine 
jat a birth, which are blind for a few davs. 

The hair and colour vary with the climate, 
and sometimes even in the same countrv. Buf- 
fon inforrns us that, besides the common 
Wolves, some are found in France and Ger- 
many with thicker and more yellow coloured 
hair; which, tliough wildest, avoid the flocks 
and habitations ot men, and live solely by 

In the Wolf, says this great naf^^•alis^, 
there is nothing valuable but it's skin, which 
makes a warm and durable fur. It's licsh is so 



bad, that it is reje6ied with abhorrence by all 
other quadrupeds ; and no animal, but a Wolf, 
will voluntarily eat a Wolf. The smell of it's 
breath is exceedingly offensive: for, to ap- 
. pease it's ravenous appetite, it swallows what- 
ever it can find ; putrid flesh, bones, hair, 
skins half tanned and covered with lime, 
and even mud. It vomits often; and emp- 
ties itself more frequentlv than it fills. In 
short, the ^V"olf is consummately disagreea- 
ble. It's aspecl is base and savage, it's voice 
<lreadful, it's odour insupportable, it's disposi- 
tion perverse, and it's manners are ferocious : 
it is odious and destru6bive, while Iking ; and, 
when dead, almost perfectly useless. 

Pontcppidan, in his Historv of Nc^r^.vav, 
risserts that "Wolves were unknown in that 
country till the year 1713; when, during the 
last war with Sweden, the Wolves passcil tht; 
mountains, by following the provisions uf tlie 
armv. 'Jlicy certainly have been known to 
follow armies ; and even come in troops to 
the field of battle, where bodies are carelessly 
intorrcd, tearing them up, and devouring tbera 
with an insatiable avidity. 


This minute bird, is the Trochilus Mini- 
mus of Linnsus, Gmelin, and Klein ; and the 
Smallest, or Least, Humming Bird, of Sir 
Hans Sloane, Edwards, and Latham. Brisson 
calls it, Mellisuga: and Buffbn, who divides 
Humming Birds into Fly Birds and Colibri, 
names this the Smallest Fly Bird. Our figure is 
the exadl size of the bird j which, when dried, 
weighed no more than five grains. It was brought 
from Jamaica : and Edwards takes it to be the 
same species as that mentioned by Sir Hans 
Sloane, in his History of Jamaica ; which, 
weighed, when just killed, only twenty grains. 

It is thus described by Edwards — The 
bill, and the whole upper side of the head, 
neck, body, wings, and tail, are of a dirty 
brown colour ; yet, in the sunshine, there is a 
small gloss of a golden green colour, which 
sQ-ikes not the 'eye in common lights. The 
under side of the head, neck^ and the belly, 
are of a dirty white^ The outside feathers of 




the tall are also whke. The legs and feet are 
black. All this tribe cf birds have a verv 
fine lube, or pipe, which they can extend 
out cf their mouths bevond the point of the 
bill ; these tubes seem to part in two very 
small ones, at their extremities. ^\'ith diis 
pipe, they suck the juices out of flowers." 

Baifbn savs, it is smaller than some of our 
flies: ail the upper side of tiie head and bodv 
being of a gold green, changing brown, with 
reddish reflexions ; and all the under sides of a 
white grey. The feathers of the wings are 
brown, inclining to violet. In the female, 
the colours are not so bright ; she is also 
smaller than the male. The bill of the Fly 
Bird is equally thick throughout, slightly 
swelled at the tip, compressed horizontallv, 
and straight. This last character, ButFon 
rJds, distinguishes the Fiv Bird from the Co- 
iibri, which most naturalists have confouruied. 
They have all six feathers in the tail. This 
.smallest species is found in Brazil, and the 
Antilles^ Buribn's bird came from Martinico. 


This beautiful and curious insedc was first 
riamcd, as well as figured, by Edwards. It 
was brought from Santa Crux, in Barbary; 
and received it's appellation of the Whistle 
Insedl, from it's nearly agreeing with another 
insecSi: found in Africa, called the ^Vhistle 
Beetle, of which the natives make whistles, 
and wear them about their necks, for the pur- 
pose of calling together their cattle, 

Edwards, with his usual frankness, acknow- 
ledges that he knows not in what tribe or 
genus to class this inse6t. He describes it, 
however, with his customary precision. 

The head," says he, " is made like that 
of a Locust. The upper body, or thorax, is 
surrounded with many sharp points; the 
lov.-er part of the body, or alidomcn, is' 
composed of about ten rings, and has two 
ix)ints at it's end. It has six legs, of three 
joints each: the joints next the body are 

smooth, • 


smooth, the middle ones have some small 
points ; the feet, or outer joints, are divided 
into roundish fiat parts, which are pliable ; 
and each foot has two small claws at it's end. 
The body is black on it's upper side, spotted 
with orange colour ; the under side is orange 
colour : the legs, also, are orange colour, but 
with som.e black about their joints* The 
horns are brown.'* 

Were we as anxious to increase names of 
the same objedls in natural history, as we are 
sincerely desirous to see them diminished, we 
might, from it's description in Edwards's own 
words, have given it the new appellation of 
the Locust Beetle. 

The propriety of this idea is particularly 
obvious, on beholding a side view of the in- 
secSl: ; when, from the diredllon of the horns, 
as well as the form of the head, added to the 
elevation of the joints of the hind legs in the 
adion of walking, it lias prckligiously the ge- 
neral appearance of the locust tribes. It is, 
jiotwithstanding, we apprehend, to be consi- 
dered as of the beetle race. 


^lTURalist's pocket 




N^' XXIX. 


The walking LEAF. 





This beautiful animal, the Lemur Mongoz 
of Linnsus, is a species of the Maucauco; 
and, by Pennant, called the Woolly Mau- 
cauco. In Nieuhoft's Voyage, it is denomi- 
nated the Macassar Fox. Llnnseus, Pennant 
remarks, confounds this animal with Mr. 
Edwards's Black Maucauco. 

BulFon, who names the genus Makis or 
Maucaucos, divides them into three species : 
the Mococo, or Maucauco, commonly known 
by the name of tlie Ring -Tailed Maki, or Mau- 
cauco ; the Brown Maki, or Mongooz, impro- 
perly denominated the Brown, because some 
are all brown, while others have their cheeks 
black, and their feet yellow; and, lastly, the 
Vari, by some called the Pied Maki, though 
some only are Pied, others all Black, and 
others wholly White. These animals are all 
of tiiem natives of the eastern regions of 
Africa; particularly, of Madagascar, where 
they are very numerous. 



Pennaiit, who describes ituixler the name or 
the Woolly Maucauco, savs that it not only 
inhabits Madagascar, and the adjacent isles, 
hut is found as far as Celebes and Macassar. 
It sleeps on trees; turns it's tail over it's head, 
to protecl: it from rain; lives on fruits; and 
is very sportive, good-natured, and tender. 

This, " he adds, is the species Sonnerat calls 
INIaquis a Bourres, but his figure is not by any 
means accurate." 

The ]Mongooz is described, by BufFon, as 
•smaller than the Ring-Tailed Maucauco. It's 
hair is silky, shortish, and somewhat curled. 
It's nose is larger than that of the Ring- 
■"J ailed Maucauco, and resembles that of the 
Yari, or Pied Maki or Maucauco. ** I had, " 
savs he, a Mongooz in mv possession for 
several years, which was entirely brown; it 
liad yellow eyes, a black nose, and short ears. 
It amused itself with eating it's own tail, and 
acluallv destrovcd the last four or live verte- 
brae. 1'his animal was extremely dirty ; and 
so troublesome, that we were obliged to chain 
it. Whenever it could make it's escape, it 
went into the neighbouring shops, to search 



for fruits, sugar, and sweetmeats, and would 
r-eadily open the boxes which contained them* 
It .was with difficulty seized; and bit cruelly, 
€ven those with whom it was best acquainted* 
It uttered a low, grunting noise, almost perpe- 
tually; and, when tired of being alone, would 
croak like a frog, so loud as to be heard at a 
great distance. This Mongooz was a male, 
and his testicles were extremely large in pro- 
portion to the size of his body» He wa^s fond 
• of the she cats; and even satisfied his desires 
without any intimate union: his embraces, of 
course^ were ineffedtuaL He dreaded cokl and 
moisture ; never willingly departed from a fire ; 
and stood upright to warm himself. He was 
fed with bread and fruits. His tongue was 
rough, like that of a cat : and, wlicn permit- 
ted, he licked any person's hand till it was in- 
flamed; generally concluding this operation 
with a severe bite^ The cold of the winter 
nSO, killed this Mongooz, though lie never 
quitted his station near the fire. His move- 
ments were extremely brisk ; and, sometimes, 
petulant. He often slept during the dav ; but 
his slumbers were so liirlu, that the smallest 
noise aw»akcd him> 

" Ih 


in this species," adds BufFon, there are 
several varieties, botli in colour and size: the 
Mongocz whose historv has just been given, 
was totally brown, and about the size of a 
common cat. I saw one which, though an 
adult, was not larger than a fat squirrel. If 
this small Mongooz had not perfe6llv resem- 
bled the large kind, except in size, it would 
unquestionably have been a distinct species: 
but, as v.'e have no evidence that these two 
animals do not intermix, we must still regard 
them as the same species, till we acquire some 
new light as to their history and economv." 

Edwards, from whom we have copied our 
beautiful figure, with the Basket of Fruit,' 
gives the following account of the Mongooz. 

** These animals," sav? he, ** are brought 
from Madagascar, and manv of the smaller 
islands between that and the P2ast Indies. 
Thev seem to be one remove from the dircci 
Monkey. The Mongooz is less than a small 
cat : this was a female. 

*' The head of this aniinal is shaped much 



like that of a fox, and is wholly covered with 
hair. The eyes are black; with orange- 
coloured irid-es, or circles round the eyes. The 
hair is black; and joins between the eyes, 
tending downward in a point toward the 
nose, which is also black : but there is a space 
between the eyes and nose purely white,, 
which reaches under the eyes, on the side of 
the head. The upper part of the head, neck, 
back, tail, and limbs, is of^a dark brownish 
ash-colour^ the hair being something woolly. 
The underside of the body is white. The paws 
are made like those of monkies, with fiat 
nails ; except the second toes of the hinder 
feet, which have each of them a sharp-pointed 
claw. All the paws are covered with short 
hair of a light ash-colour. The tail is long^ 
The hair is pretty tliick and soft; and appears 
to have a mixture of lighter and darker parts 
all over the body. It's adiions were like those 
of a monkey." 

This Mongooz was drawn from life, in 
n52; and the lady to whom she belonged, 
informed Mr. Edwards, that she fed on fruits, 
herbs, and almost any thing, even living fishes. 



She had. likewise, an evident desire to catch 
the birds in her mistress's cages. " Since I 
drew the above," adds Edwards, " I have seen 
others of this genus r one, said to be brought 
from the East Indies, of the size of a large 
house cat; having it's face and paws wholly 
black, it's eyes like the above-described, and 
all the rest of the fur of a- dark brown." Mr. 
Edwards concludes with observing, that he 
also saw, at St. Bartholomew Fair, London, 
in 1753, three or four of these animals, all 
pretty nearly of the size of house cats, a- 
greeiug in their shape one with the othe^-,. 
and differing: chieflv in colour. One of them 
had the tail more bushy than any I had seen,, 
and of a pretty equal thickness it's whole 

Pennant alsa says, that this animal varies ; 
being sometimes found witli white or yellow 
paws, and with a face wholly brown.. 


This noble, elegant, and beautiful bird, is 
tbe Columba Coronata of Linnieus. Though 
it*s magnitude be equal to that of a common 
Turkey, it undoubtedly belongs to the family 
of Pig-eons, 


The original, from which this bird was first 
copied by Edwards, was drawn from the life, 
in India ; and is, with many other drawings, 
broucrht likewise from India bv Governor 
Lotcn, deposited in the Britisli Museum. 

Governor Loten, it seems, brought several 
of these Great Crowned Pigeons alive from 
India ; which he presented to the Princess 
Royal of Great Britain, the Princess Dowager 
of Orange, Sec. It is a native of the Isle of 
Banda, where tlie Dutch call it Kroon Voogel. 

The description of tlils bird can hardly be 
better p;ivcn than in Edwards's own words. 

*' The 


"The bill is black; pretty straight; the 
point of the upper mandible a little overhang- 
ing the iicthern. From the upper mandible, 
t)n each side, pass broad spaces of black, 
ending in points toward the hinder part of the 
head. The eyes have red irides, and are placed 
in the aforesaid black spaces. The head hath 
a towering crest, or crown, which I suppose 
to be always erecl: it is composed of very de- 
licate feathers, with slender shafts, and fine 
\vebs, not having their parts adhering to, but 
wholly detached from, each other. The crest, 
head, neck, quill-feathers of the wings, tail, 
and whole under sice, are of a fine lightish 
blue ash-colour, such as is seen in the lighter 
parts of some of our Dove-house Pigeons. 
The covert fcat'ners without-side of the wings, 
and the middle of the back, are of a dark red- 
dish brick-colour ; which, together, form a 
kind of saddle across the upper part of the 
bird! Some of tlie first row of coverts* above 
the quills, arc white, with tips of the above 
red : the remainder of the same row of coverts, 
next the back, are ash-cclcured. The legs and 
feet, which seem to be made as in Pigeons, arc 
of a whi'iOi rjor-. w'-.'t spots of red." 



Edwards remarks, that Brlssoii has figured 
this bird : and,'' says he, " I am persuaded 
it was one of those very bird^ presented to the 
Princess of Orange ; for,^ he concludes his de- 
scription by saying, it was brought from the 
Isle of Banda, and presented to the Princess of 
Orange, who presented it to Mr. Reaumur. 
Which was," observes Edwards, I suppose, 
after it w^as dead ; as the colour of the eyes is 
not given, and the crest seems to be flattened 
in the carriage, according to his figure ; wdiicli 
see, in Brisson's Ornithology, vol. 1. tab. vi. 
fig. 1. p. 278. He calls it, Le Faisan Coronnee 
des Indes. I do notw'onder," says this candid 
writer, that Brisson places it among Phea- 
sants ; as he did not see it alive, to judge of 
it's genus from ii's manner of acting. The 
size of tlie bird determine'd him to place it with 
Pheasants, Sec. But IN'Ir. Loten has assured 
me, that it is properly a Pigeon ; and has all 
the action and voice of a Pigeon, in it's cooing, 
courting, and billing, with it's female. I must 
confess, I should never have looked for a Pi- 
geon in so large a bird, without such informa- 



BufFon says, though this bird is as large as 
a turkey, it undoubtedlv belongs to the genus 
of the Pigeon. It's bill, it's head, it's neck^ 
the general shape of it's body, it's legs, it's 
feet, it's nails, it's cooing, it's instin6l?, it's 
habits, &c. all are analogous. From being 
deceived by it's size, and never thinking of 
comparing it with a Pigeon, Brisson," savs 
BufFon, and afterwards our designer, termed 
it a Pheasant. The last work of Edwards was 
not then published ; that excellent ornithologist 
has since given his opinion on the subjecft." 

This opinion having been already seen by 
the reader, we need not quote it again from 
BufFon ; who adds, that the Prince of Soubise 
had recently received, at Paris, five of these 
birds alive. " They are all," adds Bufron, 
" so much like each other, in size and colour, 
that it is impossible to distinguish their sex. 
Besides, thev do not lav^ and Mauduir, an in- 
tclhgcnt naturalist, informs me, that lie saw 
several in Holland, which also did not lay. I 
remember to have read, in some voyages, that 
it is usual, in India, to raise these birds, as wc 
•lo our pouirrv." 


This curious inse6^:, known by the name of 
the Walking Leaf, from it's resembkince in 
form, as well as in hue, to a dry leaf, is said 
to be brought from the Spanish Vv''est Indies ^ 

■ The following description was given- by 
Edwards to accompany his print, which M'e 
have exactly copied. 

It is very flat-bodied, of the reddish co- 
lour of some dry leaves, the wings being', a 
little more yellow 1 some of them incline to 
green. I am apt to beiicve, that they change " 
from green to a reddish brown, according as 
the leaves of trees change wkh the seasons of 
the year, in order the better to deceive bird?, 
&c. that may feed on them* The hinder legs 
are perfe6li but, I believe, the outer johits of 
the four other legs were broken off, and I did 
not care to supply them by conjecture: thcsc^ 
were drawn after nature, from the. insctfis 
themselves, now preserved in the British Mu- 
seum at London." 


The suggestion of Edwards, as to the change 
of this singular insedt, with regard to it's hue, 
is certainly ingenious ; but we do not clearly 
perceive the ground on which he has erected 
his conjedlure. Whether he built it on anv 
thing which he perceived in the thing it- 
self, or on what he had read or been told, 
we are equally at a loss to guess. Some 
foundation, he cenainly had; but, from the 
mere inspection of the objedt, we cannot pos« 
siblv form the same conclusion. Indeed, we 
confess, that it seems to us by ho means in- 
dispensably necessary to the security of the 
insed:: which, we almost suspedt, was the 
true foundation of Edwards's idea^ who well 
knew, and we also recognize, how yerv pro- 
vident nature is constantly found in tlie re- 
quisite presen atlon of all her offspring. '1 he 
appearance of a dead leaf,- however, scattered 
here and there in a tree,, for we do not nmi 
that the inset5l is very common, cannot be 
'!^ouc;ht so unusual a sigi.t, as to imply, to 
the most sagacious bird, tlie presence of an 
'n<cv5l on which it might prey. 

W'c should disdain to cavil at any thing ad- 


vanced by a chara6ter so rmiable as Edwards 
seems to have been, or a naturalist so able as 
he certainly was : but such, we are persuaded, 
was his attachment to Truth and Nature, and 
Ills desire of seeing them traced to their last 
retreat by the readiest road ; that he would not, 
were he now living, be displeased to see thein 
successfully explored, though by a path, dif- 
ferent, in some particular instances, from w^hat 
he had himsplf pursued on the like occasions. 
This, we trust, may serve as a sufficient apo- 
logy for any difference of opinion we should 
at any time feel it necessary to express respect- 
ing the excellent remarks of this very skilful 
and penetrating observer, whose positive as^ 
sertions no man has ever been capable c£ 

The idea of Edwards, respeCling the IboTj 
which seem wantuig, appears to us just; the 
inse6l, which is of tlie Cimex or Bun; kind, 
had certainly four, if jiot six legs. 'I'he per- 
fect legs, however, are the foie legs, and not 
the hinder ones; which, probably, was a mis- 
take of the printer. ^Ve have figured, of their 
natural size, both the upper and under sides of 



tills very curious insecV, that a compieat idea 
inay be formed of so wonderful a production 
of nature. If, however, we coolly considci 
the circumstance of colour, we shall find that, 
in this respect, it is not greatly dissimilar to 
many of the Bug species, and even those of 
the commonest kinds. It is the form which 
gives most singularity to this interesting obje<£l. 

Dr. Brookes, who is not generally consi- 
dered as a writer of much authority, gives the 
following account of this insect; which we 
shall insert literally, as it would in a great 
measure confirm the idea of Edwards respect- 
ing the change of colour with the season, if it 
could be safely relied on. But we incline to 
vSuspccl, tliat either Dr. Brookes, who copied 
Edwards's figure, has converted the conjeclure 
of tliat ingenuous naturalist into positive as- 
sertion; or that, drawing from the same 
source, wliat is said in tliat respect, lias 
adopted It with less reservation than the more 
cautious, and better discriminating Edwards, 
judged it prudent to employ on the occasion. 

The Walking Leaf/' is an inse(5l brought 



f rom the Spanish West Indies, and has a very 
tt It body, of a reddish colour, hke that of 
certain dry leaves ; that is, at some times of 
the year, for at first it is green. It is pro- 
duced from a green egg, as big as a coriander 
seed ; from which, in a few days,, proceeds a 
little black inse6l like an ant when just 
hatched. The wings are at first like a green 
leaf, and have fibres run along them, from the 
inward edges to the outward, much like those 
of many leaves, and they branch into subdi- 
visions as they come nearer the edge. On 
the fore part of the body are four other small 
wings ; which, thougli they differ among 
rliemselves, each pair being of a different 
shape, yet they exadlly resemble some sort of 
leaves. The larger wings being shut^ it ex- 
ciClly resembles a leaf, which has been the rea- 
son why it is called the Walking Leaf The 
'jves are small, and prominent, and the moutli 
is forked; the head is round, and about th« 
neck there is. the resemblance of a ring, of 
the same colour with the body. Behind this 
the neck enlarges. again> insomuch that it looks 
almost hkc another head,, but larger. It i& 



above three inches long, and an inch and half 

To this we shall, for the present, onlv add, 
that the Cimex Paradoxus, since discovered bv 
Dr. Sparniann, at the Cape of Good Hope, 
is evidently a species of the Walking Leaf ; 
but so differing from this of Edwards in it's 1 
form, which is also perfe61:, that we shall take 
a future opportunity of presenting the figure, 
with v/hat Dr. Sparmann has said on the sub- 
■ je£l, who does not appear to have been ac- 
quainted with our Walking Leaf. In the 
mean time, it may not be im. proper to remark 
that, thoufrh discovered while retreatlner from 
the intolerable heat of the sun, it appeared 
like " a little withered, pale, crumpled leaf, 
eaten, as it were, by caterpillars.'* 

The Editors of the Encvclopsdia Britan- 
nica mention this, as the discovery of a new 
and vcrv peculiar species of the Bug, bv Dr. 
Sparniann: appearing, also, to be unappri/.cd 
of the ^\'alking Leaf, notwithstanding it has 
been so gencrallv known for more than half a 
century. | 


naturalist's pocket -'i 


OR, ^ j 




2. The horned DOBCHICK. | 

3. The arbutus j or, STRAWBERRY TREE. 







IHE Dormouse is a distin6l tribe, or genu,^, 
of animals, of an intermediate class, between 
the Squirrel and the Rat or Mouse. The\" 
are characterized, by having two cutting teeth 
in each jaw; four toes on their fore feet, and 
five on their hind feet ; thin naked ears ; and a 
long tail covered with hair. Though there 
are but eight or nine known species, or varie- 
ties, in all; some of them are denominated, 
by naturalists, after the squirrel affinity, and 
others after that of the mouse. 

. Buffon, who treats of these animals mucli 
too generally, comprehends them all under 
the class of w hat he calls Fat Squirrels. *' \\'c 
have," says he, " three species of this animal i 
the Fat Squirrel, the Garden Squirrel, and the 
Dormouse; which, like the Marmot, sleep du- 
ring the winter. Of these, the Fat Squirrel is 
the largest, and the Dormouse the least. Se- 
veral authors have confounded these three 
species, though tlicy arc easily dinlnguishable. 


The Fat Squirrel is about l;he size of the coin- 
mon squirrel, aiid has it's tail cov.ered widi 
long hair ; the Garden Squirrel is not so large 
as a rat, and has very short hair on it's tail, ex- 
cept near the extremity, where it is bushy ; 
and the Dormouse is not larn^er than the coin- 
mon mouse, the hair on it's tail being longer 
than that of the Garden Squirrel, but shorter 
than that of the Fat Squirrel, and it's tip is 
bushy. The Garden Squirrel diirers from tlie 
other two, by having black spots near it's 
eyes ; and. the Dormouse, bv having whitish 
hair on it's back. Ail the three are white, or 
Avhitish, on the throat and belly: but the Gar- 
den Squirrel is of a line white; tlie Fat Squir- 
rel only whitish ; and the Dormouse rather 
YcUowisIi, than white, in all tlie under parts of 
the body." 

These animals, he is of opinion, arc impro- 
perly said to sleep during winter; because it is 
i)ot a natural sleep, but a torpor, or^numbness 
of the senses and members, produced by a 
chillncss of tlie blood. " The internal heat 
of these creatures," savs this philosophical 
naturalist, " exceeds not that of the air. 



When the heat of the air is ten degrees above 
the freezing point, their temperature is pre- 
cisely the same. I have plunged the ball of a 
thermometer into the bodies of several iiving 
Garden Squirrels, and found their internal 
heat to be always nearly equal to the tempe- 
rature of the air. I have even seen the ther- 
mometer sink a degree, or half a degree, when 
applied to the heart ; the temperature of the air 
being at that time only 1 1 degrees : now, wc 
know, that the heat of man, and of most qua- 
drupeds, is always more than 30 degrees. It is 
not, therefore, surprising, that these animals, in 
which the heat is so inconsiderable, should fall 
into a benumbed state, whenever their internal 
heat is not augmented bv that of the external 
air ; and this constantly happens, when" the 
thermometer exceeds not 10 or 11 degrees 
above the freezing point. This is the true 
cause of the torpid state of what are called 
the sleeping animals ; a cause which, thougli 
common to all animals that sleep dui ing win- 
ter, has hitherto been overlooked. I have dis- 
covered it in the three animals under consi- 
deration ; in the Hedgehogs; and in the Bats: 
and, though I have never had an opportunity 



of examining the Marmot, I am persuaded 
that it's blood, like that of the other sleepers, 
is cold; because it is subjecl to torpor during 
the winter. This torpid state continues as 
long as the causes bv which it is produced, 
and ceases with the cold. A few degrees of 
heat above 10 or 11, is sufficient to reanimate 
them : and, if kept in a warm place during the 
winter, they are never benumbed ; but go 
about, and eat and sleep, from time to time, 
like other animals. When they feel cold, they 
roll themselves up in the form of a ball ; in order 
to expose less surface to the air, and to pre- 
serve their natural warmdi. It is in this form 
that they are found, during the winter, in hol- 
low trees, and in holes of walls exposed to the 
south. There they lay, without the smallest 
motion, on moss and leaves; and, though even 
tossed about, ncitlier extend tliemselves, nor 
exhibit any signs of life. From this state no- 
thing can rouse them but the application of a 
gentle and gradual heat ; for thev die, when 
suddenly brought near a fire. Though, in 
this state, thev have no motion ; though their 
CN'es are shut, and they seem to be deprived of 
every sensation ; thev arc susceptible of acute 



,pain. A wound, or a burn, makes them con- 
ti'a6t, or shrink, as well as utter a low cry, 
"which they even several times repeat. Hence, 
it is evident, that their internal sensibility still 
exists, as well as the adtion of the heart and 
lungs. It is, however, to be presumed, that 
these vital motions a61: not with so much force 
as when the animal is in it's ordinary state. 
The circulation, it is probable, proceeds in 
the large vessels only ; the respiration is slow 
and feeble; the secretions are inconsiderable; 
and no excrements are voided. There must, 
likewise, be little or no perspiration: since 
they pass several months without eating; 
which could not happen, if they lost as much 
.of their substance by perspiration, as they do 
at other times, when they have an opportunity 
of repairing this natural waste by taking nou- 
rishment. Still, however, they lose some 
part; being found, during long winters, to die 
in their holes: but, perhaps, it is not so much 
the duration, as the rigour, of the cold, which 
destroys them ; for, when exposed to a strong 
frost, they soon die. I am induced to think> 
that they do not perish through loss of sub- 
stance; because, in autumn, they aic exceed- 


ingly fat, and they are equally so Avhen they 
revive in the spring. This quantity of fat 
serves for an internal nourishment to the ani- 
mal, and supplies what it loses by respiration. 
As cold is the sole cause of their torpor, and 
as they only fall into this state when the tem- 
perature of the air is below 10 or 11 degrees, 
they ^frequently revive during the winter; for, 
in this season, there are often many davs v. hen 
the liquor in the thermometer stands at 1 2, 
13, 14, and even at higher degrees: and, as 
long as fine weather of this sort continues, 
the Dormice come out of their holes, lo search 
for food, or eat their autumnal hoard. Aris- 
totle, and all succeeding naturalists, have as- 
serted, that Dormice pass the whole winter 
without eating ; that, in this season of absti- 
nence, they grow very fat; and, that thev are 
better nourished bv sleep alone, than other ani- 
mals bv food. This notion is both absurd and 
impossible. The Dormouse, which sleeps four 
or five months, can onlv iattcn bv the air it re- 
spires. Supposing a part of this air to be 
converted into nourishment, an augmentation 
so considerable could never be the result. It 
would not even be sufficient to repair the con- 


tinual waste occasioned by perspiration. Aris- 
totle might be led into this error by the mild 
winters of Greece; where the Dormice sleep 
not perpetuallvj but often revive, take plenty of 
food, and are consequently extremely fat, 
though in a torpid state. The truth is, they 
are fat at all times ; and, particularly, in sum- 
mer and autumn. Their flesh resembles that 
of the Guinea Pig. The Romans reckoned 
Dormice among their most dehcate dishes, 
and accordingly reared them in great numbers. 
Varro describes the method of making war- 
rens for them ; and, from Appicius, we learn 
the manner of dressing them in the high taste 
of his times. In this pra6lice, whetlier from 
a disgust at these animals because they re- 
semble Rats, or from the badness of their 
flesh, the Romans have not been followed by 
other nations. I have been informed, by pea- 
sants who had eat them, that they were not 
better than AV^ater Rats. Besides, the Fat 
Squirrel is the only species that is eatable ; the 
flesh of the Garden Squirrel is bad, and has a 
disagreeable flavour." 

For these ingenious and very excellent re- 
marks on the torpidity of animals, every ra- 


tional admirer of nature is much indebted to 
the Count De Buffon: and, though introduced 
under his description of the Fat Squirrel, or 
Sciurus Glis of Linnaeus, they will be found 
applicable to all the torpid tribes. His Gar- 
den Squirrel is the Mus Quercinus of Linna;us ; 
and his Common Dorm.ouse, or Sleeper, Lin- 
nasus's Mus Avellanarius. 

The Gilt-Tailed Dormouse, which is the 
animal we have figured, seems to have been 
but lately noticed. It is a native of Surinam; 
though BufFon naturally enough supposed, 
that the Dormouse was not to be found in the 
warmer climates: a knowledge of this facl 
might, perhaps, have disturbed his ingenious 
theory. The length of this beautiful little ani- 
mal, from tip to tip, is about eleven inches. It 
has short broad ears, and great whiskers. The 
face is marked with a gold-coloured line, ex- 
tending from the nose to the space between the 
cars. The rest of the head, as well as the 
whole body, and beginning of the tall, are a 
purpllsli chcsnut colour. The remaining half 
of the tall is black ; the rest being of a beau- 
tiful gold colour. It climbs trees, and lives on 


Though the name Dobchick is well 
known in England, wc do not find it used by 
naturalists in general. Even Goldsmith has 
never mentioned it ; and takes but a very slight 
and imperfe£l notice of the Grebe, which 
is it's most usual denomination with natura- 
lists. Both Willughby, and Edwards, how- 
ever, are among the few, who use the appel- 
lation of Dobchick. Of the Grebe, there are 
many families : some of which, have the Lin- 
nsean name, Colymbus ; and others, that of 
Podiceps. BufFon divides these into Grebes and 
Chesnuts ; the latter comprehending the smal- 
ler classes. *' We have said," observes this 
naturalist, *^ that the Chesnut is much smaller 
ti'ian the other Grebes : we may even add, except the Stormy Petrel, it is the least 
of all the swimming birds. It resembles the 
Petrel also, in being clothed with down instead 
of feathers; but it's bill, it's feet, and all it's 
body, are exadly like tliose of the Grebes : it's 
c olours, too, are nearly the same as those of 



the Grebes; but, as it^s back is of a chesnut 
brown, it has been termed the Chesnut. Like 
(he Grebes, the Chesniit wants the power of 
standing and walking on the ground: it's legs 
trail and projecf behind, unable to support ir, 
and it with difficult}^ rises ; but, when once it 
has mounted, it flies to a great distance. It is 
seen on the rivers the whole winter ; at which 
time it is very fat. Though called the River 
Grebe, it is seen also on the sea- shore ; where 
it eats shrimps and smelts, as it likewise feeds 
on young crabs and small fish in fresh waters.'* 

Buffon enumerates and describes ten species 
of the Grebe, and four of the Chesnut: to 
which last he annexes, inulcT the name of a 
"fifth species, the Coote Grebe ; observing, that 
nature never proceeds by starts, but fills up all 
the intervals, and connedls remote objedls bv a 
chain of intermediate produ6lions. The Cootc 
Grebe, hitherto unknown, is related to bor'i 
genera; it was sent to him trom Cavenne, 
and is as small as the Clicsnul. As all tb.; 
upper surface of tlic body, however, is ?. \ 
olive brown, Bufl'bn has cautiously avoidc.i 
calling it a Cliesnut ; and, perhaps, instead of 



placing it as his fifth species of Chesniit, he 
should have made it an eleventh of his Grebe. 

The plumage of the Grebe, particularly 
that of the breast,, is a fine down, very close 
and firm, and regularly dispersed, the glistening 
filaments of; which lay on each other, and 
unite, so as to form a glossy, shining surface, 
equally impenetrable by cold or humidity : 
this clothing, so necessary to the Grebe, which 
in the severest winter remains constantly in 
the water, is formed into those well known 
beautiful silvery white muffs, which possess 
the soft closeness of down, with the agreeable 
elasticity of feathers, and the ricli lustre of silk. 

The Horned Dobchick, or Horned Grebe 
of Buffon, is the Colymbus Cornutus of Gme- 
lin, the Podiceps Cornutus of Latham, and 
the Eared or Horned Dobchick of Edwards. 
Jt's specific chara6ler is, that the head is a 
glossy green; witli a yellovv* bar at the eye, 
extended behind like a liorn or crest. 

There is no appearance of a tail. The 
thighs are so bound within the skin, that the 



bird, when on land, must of necessity walk 
upright. The legs are "bare at the knees, and 
serrated or jagged behind ; being of a blueish 
ash-colour on their outsides, and inclining to 
flesh-colour on their insides. 

The Horned Grebe is said, by Buffon, to be 
extensively spread, and known in most parts 
of Europe. The bird which we have de- 
scribed came from Hudson's Bav; though 
another, supposed to be the hen, is given by 
Edwards, who says it was caught near London. 

" Fernandez,'* remarks BufFon, accu- 
ratelv describes one of these found in Mexico : 
and adds, that it is called the Water Hare, 
bur does not assign the reason." The reason 
to us seems obvious : the Horned Dobchick 
is as swift in the water as the Hare on land. 



IHE Arbutus, or Strawberry Tree, is a ge- 
nus of plants, ranged in the tenth class of 
Linnaeus, being the Decandria Monogynia, 
from the flowers having ten stamina, and one 
style. It's generical chara£lers are these — 
The flower has a small obtuse permanent em- 
palement, cut into five parts, on which sits the 
gcrmen. The flower is of one leaf, shaped 
like a pitcher ; and divided at the brim into 
five parts, which turn backward. It has ten 
sIVort stamina, which are joined at the bottom 
to the flower leaf, and crowned with bifid sum- 
mits. At the bottom of tlie flower is situated 
the globular germen, supporting a cylindrical 
style, crowned by a thick blunt stigma. After 
the flowf^.r is past, the gcrmen becomes an. 
oval or round berry, having five cells, whicli 
are filled with hard seeds. 

The .species of the Arbutus arc five: viz. 
t]ie Arbutus folio serrata, or Common Straw- 
bcrry Tree, with smooth sawed leaves^ ber- 


lies full of seeds, and an eie£t woody stem ; 
the Arbutus folio non serrato, or Orieatal 
Strawberry Tree, called Adrachne ; the Arbu- 
tus, called Vidus idaea Acadiensis foliis Ala- 
terni, or Bilberry of Arcadia with the Alater- 
liizs leaf; the Arbutus, called Vhri idsea foliis 
oblongis albicanribus, or Bilberry with oblong, 
whitish leaves; and the Arbutus, called Uva 
Ursi, or Bearberry. 

The first, or common species, is that which 
we have figured ; and is said, bv Miller, to 
'^row naturally in Italy, Spain, and also in 
Ireland." It has three varieties: one with an 
oblong flower and oval fruit; another, with a 
double flower; and a third with a red flower. 

The Common Strawberry Tree is in most 
of the English gardens ; to which, in 06lober, 
November, and great part of December, it is 
■one of the chief ornaments. In these months, 
the trees flov/er, and the fruit of the former 
year at the same time ripens, for the fruit is a 
^vhole year growing to perfeiSlion. When, 
therefore, the voung blossoms, and the ma- 
ture fr\:jt, appear plentifully on these trees, 



being at a season when most others are stripped 
fof their beauty, the sight is peculiarly pleasing. 

The best method of propagating the Arbu- 
tus^j is from seeds ; that by cutting and layers 
being considered as tedious, uncertain, and 
producing rather bushes than trees. They 
should be sown in pots, towards the latter end 
of February, and plunged into a moderate hot- 
bed ; when the plants will appear about April ; 
and, with good management, grow before 
winter to the height of eight or ten inches* 
When the trees are three or four feet high, 
they may be shaken out of the pots, into the 
open ground where they are to remain ; but 
this must be done in April, that they may take 
good root before winter, 

The Arbutus is tolerably hardy ; and seldom 
hurt, except in extreme hard winters, which 
otten kill the young and tender branches, but 
seldom destroy the tree. The branches, how- 
ever, if kept clear of snow, arc not unfrc- 
qucntly preserved. 

This tree flourishes most in a moist soil ; in 



dry ground, it seldom produces much fruit. 
As the liowers appear in autumn, if the win- 
ter prove severe, they are generally destroyed. 
To obtain fruit, therefore, the trees should be 
placed in a warm situation ; and, when the 
ground is not naturally moist, there should be 
a good quantity af loam and rotten neat's dung 
laid about their roots ; besides which, in a dry 
spring, they must be plentifully watered. 

The best time for transplanting, is Septem- 
ber, when the blossoms begin to appear ; and^ 
at that season, if it prove dry, and they are 
kept moist, they will take root very soon. 
The roots, however, towards the beginning of 
November, should be well covered vs'ith. mulchy 
to keep out the frost. 

Though the blossoms, whicli are of a yel- 
lowish white, possess no peculiar beauty ; the 
siugular appearance of fruit and flowers on 
the same tree, at this unusual season, and in 
a situation also, unusual for large scarlet straw- 
berries, which the fruit exacfllv resembles, ren- 
der it prodigiously interesting. 

naturalist's pocket 

OK ) 




1. The long-tailed PORCUPINE: 
3. The rhinoceros BEETLE. 





1 HE Porcupine is the Hystrix of Linnsus ; 
which, in fa6t, is both the Greek and Latin 
names of this tribe of quadrupeds. In Ara- 
bic, according to Dr. Shaw, it is called Tzur- 
ban ; in German, Stachelschwein ; in Italian, 
Porco S})Inoso; in Spanish, Puerco Espino ; 
and, in i^Vench, Pore -epic. 

It is observed, by BufFon, that the name 
given to the Porcupine in most European lan- 
guages, leads to the notion that it is a Hog 
covered with prickles ; though ic has no re- 
semblance to the Hog, except in the grunting' 
noise which it utters. Both in figure, and in- 
ternal stru6lure, it differs from the Hoo- as 
much as any other quadruped. Instead of a 
long head, furnished with long ears, armed 
with tusks, and terminated by a snout, and 
cloven feet covered with hoofs ; the Porcupine 
has a short head like the Beaver, two large 
cutting teetti in each jaw, no tusks or canine 
teeth, the upper lip divided like that of the 


Hare> round {{?x eats, and feet armed with 
daws. Instead of a large stomach, with an 
appendage shaped like a cowl, which seems to 
form, in the Hog, the shade between the ru- 
minating and other quadrupeds, the Porcupine 
has only a simple stomach, and a large cae- 
cum. The parts of generation are nor appa- 
rent, as in the Boar; and the testicles are con- 
cealed in the groin. From these chara^Sbers, 
S-dded to the short tail in most of the species, 
r.nd the long w^oiskers, we may conclude that 
the Porcupine makes a nearer approach to 
the Hare, or the Beaver, than to the Hog. 
The Hedgehog, which is armed like the Por- 
cupine with prickles, has a greater resem- 
blance to the Hog J for it's muzzle is long 
and terminates in a kind of snout. But, adcs 
BufFoD, ail thece resemblances being sligh:, 
arid the difterences conspicuous, the Porcu- 
pine uijcjuestionably constitutes a particuh:r 
species, totally distiuvfl from that of tiic 
Hedgehog, the Beaver, tlie H-are, or any 
other animal to which fancy may compare it. 

To these remarks of B'-ifton^ it may be cb- 
jedted, however, that there is, in the Porcu- 


pine, far less affinity to the Beaver, or the 
Hare, than to the Hedgehog, or even to the 
Hog. With respc6l to the Hedgehog, it is, 
in our opinion, very nearly allied to the Por- 
cupine, in it's appearance, it's manners, and 
it's ha'bits; though we mean not to contend, 
that they ate precisely of the same species. In 
the Hog, though resemblances may be traced, 
by those who incline to seek them, the kindred 
is so very remote as to render hopeless any 
family claim. 

Of the Porcupine, there are several varie- 
ties, and some of them are extrem.ely different 
from others. The following observations,' 
however^ may be considered as applicable to 
the whole tribe. 

Travellers and natr.Talists, ^' savs Buf^jn, 
** have attributed to the Porcupine the pjo- 
perty of dartmg it's quills to a; distance^nd 
with such force as to inflidl deep wounds ; 
they have likewise said, that the quills,, when 
S*eparated from the body of the animal, possess 
the extraordinary power of penetrating, by 
then: owii proper exertion, deeper into the 



flesh as soon as their points have entered. 
This last fa6l is merely imaginary, and the 
£rst is as false as the second. The error seems 
to have originated from this circumstance : 
die Porcupine, when irritated, erecls and 
moves it's quills; and, as some of them are 
attached to the skin by a delicate pedicle only, 
they readily fail off, \Vc have examined 
living Porcupines; and, though violently agi- 
tated, vvc never saw them discharge their quills 
like darts. ' It is not a httle surprising, there- 
fore, that the gravest authors, both ancient 
arid modern, as -well as the most sensible tra- 
vellers, should join in giving their suffrages to 
a falshood. Some of them tell us, that they 
iiaverthemselves been wounded by these darts; 
otiiers affirm, that the quills are discharged 
with such violence, as to pierce a plank at the 
divtancc of several paces. The marvellous 
always augments, and gathers force, in pro- 
portion to the number of heads through which 
it passes : truth, on tlie contrarv, loses in per- 
forming the same circuit. Notwithstanding 
the absolute negative," concludes Buffon, 
** which I liavc stamped on these two fictions, 
I am persuaded that it will siill be repeated, 



by a thousand future writers, that the Porcu- 
pme darts it's quills ; and, that these quills, 
when separated from the animal, penetrate 
deeper, by their own proper exertion, into the 
bodies which they have once entered." 

From this group of credulous travellers Dr. 
Shav/ is excepted — Of the many Porcu- 
pines," says he, which I have seen in Africa> 
I never knew any of them, though very much 
provoked, that could 'dart their quills. Their 
usual method of defence is, to recline them- 
selves on one side ; and, on the enemy's near 
approach, to rise up quickly, and gore him 
with the erc6led prickles on the other." Nor 
does P. Vincent Marie by any means assert, 
that the Porcupine darts it's quills ; he only 
says, tliat this animal, when it meets with 
serpents, against which it carries on a perpe- 
tual war, rolls itself up like a ball, concealing 
it's head and feet, and then rolls on and kills 
them with it's prickles, without running any 
risque of being wounded. He adds, what wc 
believe to be true, that in the stomach of the 
Porcupine different kinds of bezoar are formed. 
Some of these are only a mass of roots en- 


velopeilwith a crust; others, which are smal- 
ler, seem to be composed of pieces of straw 
and sand j and the smallest kind, which exceed 
not the size of a nut, appear to be real petri- 
fadtions. ** We have no doubt," says BufFon-, 
as to the truth of these fadls ; for we found 
a bezoar of the first kind, oi an regagropilus, 
in the stomach of a Porcupine which was 
sent to us from Italy." 

Our Long-Tailed Porcupine, which is the 
Hystrix Macroura of Linnseus, has long whis- 
kers ; short and naked ears ; large bright eyes ; 
and a short thick body, covered with long 
stiff hairs as sharp as needles, and of different 
colours, according to the ravs of light falling 
on them. I hc feet are divided into five toes ; 
tdiat which serves as a thumb turning back^ 
wards, to assist in climbing trees. The tail Is 
as long as the body, and vcrv slender to the 
end, which consists of a thick tufi ; and the 
prickles, or spines, are jointed, being thick 
in the middle, rising one out of another like 
grains of rice, and having a transparent silvery 



This animal is a native of the isles of the 
Indian Archipelagp, and lives in the forests. 

It is the Hystrix Orientah's of Brlsson; and 
the Wild Hedgehog, or Singular Oriental 
Porcupine, of Seba: which, BufFon says, **he 
is even tempted to believe," is only the Canada 
Porcupine, or Edwards's Porcupine from Hud- 
son's Bay. He seems, however, to have 
doubts : we have none, that he is quite mis- 
taken in this conjecSlure. 

The reader, without the trouble of refe- 
rence, may wish to see the entire passage 
from Bulfbn, on which our so blunt decision 
is grounded^ 

" We are," says Buffbn, *' even tempted 
to belieYC, that the animal d-jscribcd and en- 
graved by Seba, under the name of a singular 
East India Porcupine, and which was after- 
wards pointed out by Klein, Erisson, and Lin- 
njEus, in their mcthodlcnl catalogues, by the 
chara(Elers given by Seba, might be the same 
with the animal under question. This would 
not, as formerly remarked^ be the only tuTic 



that Scba has exhibited American animals as 
belonging to the East Indies. We cannot, how- 
ever," he adds, " be so certain with regard to 
this animal as we have been with several others. 
We shall only say, that die resemblances ap- 
pear to be very great, and the differences but 
slight; and that, as these animals are little 
known, the differences may be only individual 
varieties, or those which distinguisii males and 

Without entering into a minute comparison 
of what BufFon has here been in the humour 
to denominate " slight differences;" wc shall 
content ourselves with noticing a single, as we 
presume, essential distin6lion : the Canada Por- 
cupine has four toes only on each of the foie 
feet, though five on those behind; the LoTig- 
Tailed Porcupine, as above '.noticed, has five 
toes on every one of it's four feet. Tiiis, wc 
believe, there are very few naturalists who will 
consent to admit is at all likely to be any sexual 
distin(fiion ; whatever regard they might, in 
that rcspc6t, be inclined to pay this suggestion, 
as to the total dissimilarity of the taih, &:c. 


IHIS beautiful bird, which is deposired in 
the Bi^Itish Museum, was brought by Gover- 
nor Loteii from the island of Ceylon. It is 
called by Edwards, who first figured it, the 
Short-Tailed Pye of the East Indies, ** Bris- 
son," says luuvards, *' has figured and de- 
scriBed it, or something very near it: by his 
saying the iris of the eye is " blanchatre," I 
suppose the bird was brought alive lohim. He 
calls it, " Merle Verd des Moluques;" that is, 
the Green Blackbird of the Molucca Islands. 

Albin," Edwards remarks, calls it the 
Bengal Quail in his description, and the Quail 
from the Cape of Good Hope on his plate ; 
though it is nothing of the Quail kind, nei- 
ther the bill nor feet a<rreeinor at all with birds 
of that genus. But Albin," adds Edwards, 
*' is so trifling an author, that it is pity any 
rcspetSlable writer on birds should have named 
him. His books are, mostly, a lame and er- 
roneous transcript of Willughby ; and the 



few real discoveries he has made, hardly take 
up a twentieth part of his work.'' 

Tills, though severe on Alhln, Is not all 
that Edwards has to sav aci^ainst that natu- 
rallst on this occasion. " Albln," observes 
Edwards, " has figured this bird from a bad 
drawing done in India, wliich I have seen 
at Mr. Dandriore's; thoudr Albin would Iiave 
the world believe his draught was taken from 

That Albln's works are trifling, we agree 
witii Edwards, and have often wondered at the 
decree of celebrity which thev formerly ob- 
tained. W't would not, however, condemn 
anv author, for an accidental variance be- 
tween tlie description and tlie plate : and Ed- 
wards hiniGclf has been rather unfortunate in 
this part of his censure; Iiaving made a mis- 
take exa6llv similar on his own plate of the 
very same bird. 

BufFon makes a tribe of the Short-Tails. 
** Nature," savs ho, *' has established im- 
portant distinctions between these birds and 



the Blackbirds; and I, therefore, do not hesl- 
sate to range them separately. The shortness 
of the tail, the tliickness of the bill, and the 
length of the legs, are charaderij^tic features; 
and these must involve other dilFerences, in 
their a6lions, their liabits, and perhaps in their 
dispositions. "W^e are acquainted with only 
four birds of this species: I say, species; be- 
cause the resemblance in the plumage is so ex- 
a6t, that they must be regarded as varieties 
only of a common stem. In all of them, ttie 
neck, liead, and tail, are black, or partly 
black ; the upper part of the body is green of 
various intensities ; the superior coverts of the 
wings and tail are of a fine beryl colour, with 
a white or whitish spot on the great quills ; 
and, lastly, except that of the Philippines, 
the lower part of the body is yellow." 

The hrst of these four vrvrlctics, as described 
by Bullbn, is t]:ie Short-Tailed Philipjunc; 
the second, he calls simply the Sbort-'i"ail, 
observing that Edwards luis figured it by the 
name of Short-Tailed Pie of the East Indies ; 
the third, is the Short-'l'ail ot Bengal; and, 
the fourth, the Short-Tail of Madagascar. 



These birds are also, by Gmelin, considered 
as varieties, under the appellation Corvus 
Brachviirus, var. I, 2, Sec. This Short- 
Tailed Pve of Edwards being, likewise, the 
second variety of Gmelin. It is the Cotur- 
nix Capensis, of Klein ; and the Madras Jay, 
of Ray. 

Notwithstanding we have adopted the more 
popular name given bv Edwards to this bird, 
we cannot but confess that it's resemblance to 
the Jav struck us verv forcibly on a first view 
of the object. ^V"e have, however, no infor- 
mation of it's habits, by whicli we might be 
induced either to support or to abandon our 

The bird Is well described by Edwards, from 
whom we shall transcribe all that he has said 
on the subjcvfl. 

** The bill is stralglit, sharp-pointed, aiid cf 
a brownish flesh-colour. From the upper 
mandible of the bill, along llie crown of the 
head, and down the hinder part of the neck, 
passes a black line: above the eves, from the 



bill down the sides of the neck behind, pass 
lines of a light brown on their upper borders, [ 
and white beneath. From the corners of the 
mouth, beneath the eyes, and a little way down j 
the sides of the neck, passes a pretty broad ' 
black line. The throat immediately beneath 
the bill is white. The back, the greater co- 
verts of the wings, and a few of the inner 
quills next tlie back, are of a fine darkish \ 
green colour. The upper covert feathers of ' 
the tail, and the lesser coverts without-side of 
the wings, are of an exceeding fine bright sky- i 
blue. A few of the coverts of the wings have i 
black tips, where they join the green on the -j 
back. The quills, and some of the coverts = 
above the outer ones, are black. About six | 
of the outer quills have white bars across i 
them, which form a white spot both above and 
beneath. The tips of the quills are of a dusky 
white. The insides of the wmgs are black ; j 
except the before-mentioned white spot, and 
another smaller white spot on the inner co- 
vert-feathers. The tail is composed of twelve 
very short feathers, of a blackish colour, both ] 
above and beneath, with green tips. The j 
breast, belly, and thighs, arc of a yellowish j 

buff- \ 


bufF-colour, The lower belly, and the co- 
vert feathers beneath the tail, are of a fine 
light red colour. The legs are long in pro- 
portion. The legs, feet, and claws, are of a 
reddish yellow, or dull orange-colour. The 
outer toes adhere to the middle ones at their 


Of the Rhinoceros Beetle there are several 
varieties, some of which are found in very 
distant parts of the world, and are very dilfe- 
rent from each other: they are, of courvse^ 
named from their horns, which are of various 

That which is represented in the figure an- 
nexed, was brought from the island of Gua- 
daloupe : butj on the continent of New 
Spain, this species is said to be often seen 
twice the magnitude of thisj which is deline- 
ated of the natural size. 

The horn of this "Rhinoceros Beetle, ahove^ 
is toothed on each side ; and, beneath, it is co- 
vered with a substance resembling yellow 
plush : the proboscis below it is toothed. Be- 
tween these* as it is said, the inse6l takes the 
smaller branches of trees ; and, by swiftly fly- 
ing round, soon saws them off, for the piu-- 
posc of building it's nest. The teeth cut away 



the wood, and the plush-like- pirt serves to 
brush away the saw-dusr. 

The eye, which is reddish, is defended by a 
horny point in front. The inseft is wholly 
of a shining black colour, except the wings. 
The lower wings, which are of a brown co- 
lour, are qi^ite transparent ; and the upper 
wings, which entirely cover them, are of a 
hard substance, of a greenish brown or olive 
colour, and sprinkled with black spots of va- 
rious sizes. 

This Rhinoceros Beetle is said to be very 
mischievous, and exceedingly difficult to be 


naturalist's pocket 






1. The lesser CAGUI MONKEY, 
z. The great HORNED OWL. 





IHIS Deautifnl little animal, the Simla Sago- 
inus Jacchus of Limia^us, has a variety of ap- 
pellations, Marcgrave calls it the Cagvii Mi- 
nor; Clusius, Ray, Klein, Brisson, and others, 
recognise it under the name of Cercopilheeus ; 
Schreber denominates it Le Sag-oin, which is 
the Brasilian name ; Edwards, the Sanglin, 
Cagui Minor, or Lesser Cagiii Monkey Pen- 
nant, the Striated Monkcv ;. and Buffon, from 
it's articulate utterance of ihe sound Gulstiti, 
adopts this word as the name of the animaL 

BufFoUyin his description of this animal, ob- 
serves, tliat *' Mr. Edu aids, in his Gleanings, 
has given an excellent figure of it." This ex- 
cellent figure we have accurately copied; and 
shall also, as BulFon lias judiciously done, make 
much use of that able naturalist's description. 

The animal delineated is a male, and it was 
alive when Mr. Edv/ards mad.c the drawing, 
lie considers it of the Monkey kind, but par- 


taking of the nature of the squirrel. The 
body, inckiding the head, was about six Inches 
and a half long, and the tail nearly twice that 
length. The largest of this species are sup- 
posed to weigh about six ounces, and the smal- 
lest onlv four and a half. They are all natives 
of Brasil. 

The head of the animal figured was very- 
round: it's crown beins; covered with black 
hairs; and it's sides, as well as all round the 
ears, having long white hair, whicli stood out 
in two tufts, after a very singular manner, so 
as to appear in front like a peruke. The ears, 
which were visible in a side view of the ani- 
mal, resembled those of the human species ; 
being naked, and of a dark flesh-colour. 
There was little or no hair on the face ; the 
skin of which was a swarthy flesh-colour, 
except on the upper part of the forehead, 
Wiiere it was white. The eves were of a red- 
dish hazel, with black pupils. 7'he wliole 
body was covered with dark brownish ash- 
coloured hair, of a very soft woolly nature: 
that on the back was a little hrmer than the 
rest; and each single hair was of various co- 


lours, being dusky at the bottom, then reddish, 
and tipped with grey, which caused a mixture 
or variegation on it's back. The paws, ex- 
cept their insides, were covered with short 
hair. It had five toes on each foot, made 
like those of the squirrel, v/ith pointed claws; 
except on the two great toes or thumbs of the 
hinder feet, which had flat naiis. The tail was 
covered with a thick fur, in rinq;s of a lidit 
ash-colour and black, regularly succeeding 
each other throughout it's entire length. 

This is. the particular description of our 
Lesser Cagui Monkev, as delineated and do- 
scribed by Edwards: who observes, that^-tliis 
animal is described, and badly figured, by Piso, 
in his Natural History of Brasil: and, from 
him, described by Ray, in his Synopsia Me- 
tliodica Animailum Quadrupcdum. It secnis, 
also, according to Kdvvardsj and Buffon adopts 
the same opinion, that it is the Ccrcoplthecus, 
Sagouin, of Clusius, figured in his Exoticks. 
Johnston, in his tlistory of Quadrupeds, has 
given the figures from both Piso and Clusius, 
as separate and distindl animals: his figure 
from Piso, he by mistake, remarks Ed\Mirds, 



calls Caltaia, that name standing in Plso 
nearer the figure of the Cagui than it's own 
proper name. Ludolphus, in his History of 
Ethiopia, or Abyssinia, has given two figures 
of this animal, which are descril^ecl in the 
English traiislation : he calls it Fonkes, or 
Guereza, but liis description does not at ail 
agree with the hgures; so that Edwards ima- 
gines this was met with in Holland, and sup- 
l^osed to be the Little Monkey described by 
Ludolphus, thougli it was really brought from 
Brasil, whiich was possessed by the Dutch at 
the time when that history was published. 
Klein has given a figure as large as life in his 
book De Quadruped; nut it's tail is of a 
greater length than Edwards ever observed any 
of these animals to have, t'nough he had seen 
five or six of tiieni alive. J^r. Parsons, in 
the Philosophical Transactions, Vol. xlvii. 
has given the best and most copious descrip- 
tion, of till s animal: but,** says f^dwards, 
*• tlic docl'./V had not the good luck to meet 
with a subjccl so vigorous and full of fur, as 
some of tliose which I saw after his was pub- 
lished. Lord Kingston's I saw, which was 
the smal'u'st and most sickly of all I have seen. 


Mr. Hyde^s, when I saw ir, also wanted vi- 
gour, and a fulness of fur natural to it. I 
afterwards met with two or three that ap- 
peared quite other things, they heing very 
healthy and full of fur. That from which I 
drew my figure, was the property of the good 
and very obliging Mrs. Kennon"- — called, on 
Edwards's plate, Mrs. Cannon — " formerly 
midwife to the Royal Family; who informed 
me, that it fed on several sorts of things, as 
biscuits, fruits, greens, inse6ls, snails, Sec. and 
that, once, when let loose, he suddenly snatch- 
ed a Chinese Gold Fish out of a bason of 
water, which he killed, and greedily devoured ; 
after which, she gave him small live eels, 
whicli frightened him at first, by their twisting- 
round his neck, but he soon mastered them, 
and eat them. I saw a fine one of this kind 
at Mr. John Cook\s, merchant in London. 
Mr. Cook had formerly resided at Lisbon ; 
where his lady, for her amusement, tried to 
breed the Sanglin, as they called this little 
creature: and succeeded so well, as to produce 
young ones ; tlie climate being proper for it. 
The young were very ugly at their birth, hav- 
ing little or no fur on them. I'hey cling or 



Stick very fast to the breasts of their dam ; 
but when they grow a h'ttle bigger, hang to 
her back or shoulders ; who, when she is tired 
of them, will rub them off against the wall, 
or any thing else in her way; when she has 
quitted them, the male immediately takes the 
care of them, and suffers them to hang on 
his. back for a while, to ease the female." 

Buffon says, it is certain, that neither this 
animal, nor any other Sagoin, exists in Ethi- 
opia ; and, that the Fonkes, or Guereza, of 
Ludolphus, is probably the Maucauco, or Lo- 
ris, both which are common in the southern 
regions of the Old Continent. 

The distin6tive charatElers of this species, 
as enumerated by Buffon, are these — 

They have neither cheek pouches, nor cal- 
losities on the buttocks. The tail is flaccid, 
very bushy, annulated with alternate bars ot 
bhick and white, or rather of brown and grey, 
and t\\ ice as long as the head and body. 1 he 
partition of the nostrils is very thick, and the 
apertures arc placed in the sides. The head v. 



round. The top of the front is covered with 
black hair; and, above the nose, there is a 
white spot without hair. The face is hkewise 
almost naked, and of a deep flesh-colour. On 
each side of the head, before the ears, is a tuft 
of long white hairs. The ears are roundish, 
flat, thin, and naked. The eyes are of a red- 
dish chesnut colour. The body is covered 
with grey ash- coloured hair, interspersed with 
a little yellow on the throat, breast, and belly. 
They walk on four feet ; and often exceed not 
half a foot in length. The females do not 

Pennant's reason for calling this animal the 
Striated Monkey, is only to be known by his 
description of the colour. The body," he 
says, *' is ash-coloured, reddish, and dusky ; the 
last forms striated bars across the body/' With 
less discrimination than miirht have been ex- 
pe6led from this laborious and very respec- 
table naturalist, he simply describes the hands 
and feet as " covered with short hairs; fingers 
like those of a squirrel; and nails, or rather 
claws, sharp." Edwards, witli more mi- 
nuteness and precision, as above quoted, no- 


tlces the flat nails on tlie two great toes, or 
thumbs, as he calls them, of the hinder feet. 
Pennant also says, it makes a weak noise 
but gives no intimation, that it articulates the 
word Oulstiti, from which one of the names 
that he enumerates is alone derived. 

Such are the occasional imperfections ci 
even the most able and ingenious m.en ! 


errand, and very famous noflurnal 
bird, the Bubo Atheniensis of Linnasus, is by- 
some naturalists called the Athenian Horned 
Owl; and, by others, tlie Great Eared Owl; 
*' At first sightj" says BufFon, " it appears as 
large and strong as the common eagle; but it 
is really much smaller, and it's proportions are 
quite different. The legs, the body, and the 
tail, are shorter than in the eagle ; the head is 
is much larger ; and the wings, which are not 
so broad, expand only five feet. It is easily 
distinguished by it's coarse figure, it's enor- 
mous head, the broad and deep cavities of it's 
ears, and the two tufts which rise more tliaii 
two inclies and a half on it's crown. If 
utters the hideous cry of *' Hilioo, Ilohoo^ 
Boohoo, Poohoo!" with which it interrupts 
the silence of the night, when other animaU 
enjoy the sweets of repose. It awakens them 
to danger, disturbs them in their retreat, pur» 
sues them, seizes them, or tears them to pieces, 
and transports the fragiuents to the caverns 


where it fixes it's gloomy abode. It haunts 
only rocks, or such old deserted towers as are 
situated near mountains: it seldom ventures 
into the plains ; and, declining the boughs of 
trees, commonly perches on solitary churches, 
and ancient castles. It's prey consists, in ge- 
neral, of young hares, rabbits, moles, and 
mice ; which it swallows entire, digests the 
fleshy parts, and afterwards throws up the hair, 
bones, and skin, rolled into a ball : it also de- 
vours bats, serpents, lizards, toads, and frogs, 
and feeds it's young with them. " This spe- 
cies,"' Buffbn remarks, is not- so numerous 
in France as those of the other Owls ; and it 
is by no means certain, iliat they remain the 
whole year in the country. They nestle, 
however, sometimes in hollow trees, and of- 
tenet in the crags of rocks, or in the lioles ot 
lofty old walls. Their nest, which is neaHy 
three feet in diametei-, is composed of small dry 
sticks, interwoven w-ith pliant roots, and 
strewed with leaves They commonly lay 
one or two eggs, and but seldom three; the 
colour of these somewhat resembles that ot 
the bird's plumage, and they are larger than 
hens eggs. The voung arc vers- voracious ; 



and the parents are vigilant in providing sub- 
sistence, which they procure in silence, and 
with much more agihty than their extreme 
corpulence would lead us to suppose. They 
often contend with the buzzards, are vidlori- 
ous in the combat, and seize the plunder. The 
liglit of day is to them less insupportable than 
to the other no(fturnal birds ; for they leave 
their haunts earlier in the evening, and later in 
the morning. The Greit-Eared Owl is some- 
times seen attacked by flocks of crows, which 
accompany his flight, and surround him by 
thousands. He withstands their onset; drowns 
their hoarse murmurs with his louder screams ; 
disperses them ; and, often, when the light 
begins to fail, seizes some fated vi6tim. 
Though his wings are shorter, than those 
of most of the birds which soar, he can rise 
to a great height, especially about twilight : 
but, at other times, he generally flies low, and 
to sliort distances. The Great-Eared Owl 
is employed in falconrv, to attradl the notice 
of tlie kite; and he is furnlslicd witli a fox's 
tail, to heighten the singularity of his hgure. 
'J 'bus equipped, he skims along the surface of 
the ground ; and alights on the plain, without 



venturing to perch on a tree. The kite per- 
ceives him from a distance: and advances, not 
to hght or attack him, but to admire his odd 
appearance ; and generally hovers about, un- 
guarded, till surprised hy the sportsman, or 
caught hy the birds of prey flown at him. 
Most of the pheasant breeders also keep 
one of these Great-Eared Owls, which they 
place in a cage among the rushes, in an open 
place, to draw together the ravens and the 
crows ; which gives them an opportunity of 
shooting and killing a greater number of these 
noisy birds, so alarming to -the young phea- 
sants. To avoid scaring the pheasants, they 
shpot at the crows with a cross-bow. 

It appears that, in this species, there is a 
first varietv, which includes a second; botli 
are found in Italv, and have been mentioned 
by Aldrovandus : *' the one may be called," 
says Buffon, the Black-Winged Great- 
Eared Owl; the second, the Naked-Footed 
Great-Eared Owl. The first differs from the 
Common Great-Eared Owl only by the co- 
lours of it's plumage, which is browner or 
blacker on the wings, the back, and the tail: 



the second, which resembles It exa6tly In the 
deepness of it's colour, is distinguished by it's 
legs and feet, which arc but slightly , shaded 
with feathers. 

What BufFon has above called tiie Black- 
Winged Great-Eared Owl, is our Great 
Horned Owl represented in the annexed print ; 
and is thus described by Edwards, who made 
Lis original drawing from the living bird. 

On placing," savs he, " a ruler upright 
on ii's perch near it, as it sat in the posture 
here figured, I found it's height to be above 
seventeen inches ; by which the reader may 
conclude how much the bird exceeds the 
print in size. The bill is pretty much hooked, 
and it's base partly covered with small greyish 
feathers like hair, standing forwards. The 
bill, and talons, arc of a dusky or blackish 
horn-colour. The eyes are, as in all the spe- 
cies of Horned Owls I have seen, of a fine 
golden colour, with black pupils. The face is 
flattish, as in the whole genus of Owls ; of a 
whitish grey colour, terminated all round by 
lines and s-[)ots of dusky or black. The horn;", 
or ears, are composed of feathers only ; which 



k can raise, or let fall almost fiat: thcv arc 
brown on their upper sides, and black be- 
neath ; which blackness falls immediatelv above 
tiie eves, and a du^kv line is carried round 
them, as if nature had therebv designed to 
heighten their brilliant histrr. The whole 
bird is covered with brown feathers, varie- 
?^ated with black: the brov>n is lic;h:er on th.e 
breast and bellv, than on the back, and dies 
away into a faint ash-colour^ or white, on the 
lower part ot the bellv. The large spots on 
the head, back, and wings, are some ot theni 
transverse, others drawn downwards in a 
broken contused manner: those on the breast 
and belly are, down the m.iddle of the feathers, 
broader above, and growing graduallv narrow 
below\ Besides these larger spots, thev are all 
marked with very minute transvcrseduskv lines. 
The insides of the quills, and the underside ot 
the tail, are ash-colour, with the transverse 
bars fainter than on the outer sides. The 
lerrs and feet are made as in other Owls ; and 
covered, to the ends o\ the toes, with whid>h 
soft downv feathers." 


TrnS curious jnse6t, which is the exa6l size 
represented in the figure annexed, was found 
by a cooper in London, on his cleavhig a piece 
of Virginia oak, for pipe staves. It is- of a 
dusky brown colour ; and takes it's name from 
the position of it\s long jointed horns, which 
tend backwards like those of the Goat. The 
piece of wood was given to Edwards, by the 
celebrated Mr. Joseph Ames, F. R. S. in April 
1758, with the insedl then alive, and Cc^t/- 
it's way through : a task which it accom- 
plished in the July following, when it came 
out through the hole v>^hich it had gnawed at 
the end, as appears in the print ; where, also, 
is visible, on the side of the wood, the cavity 
which it had made in the solid oak. The hole 
which it entered was in the other part of the 
wood, corresponding with that figured. 

Dr. Pye, of Mile End, had one of these 
Goat Beetles, which was found alive, in the 
Worm state, in a piece of hard wood brought 



from New England ; and, -in tliat state, actu- 
ally gnawed the vrood. ^V^hen the "W^orm or 
IVIaggot was perfect, it changed to a Chrysalis, 
in w-hich the Beetle might be seen compleaily 
formed, and wrapped up in a thin transparent 
skin, a drawing of which was preserved bv 
the doctor. After continuing in that stare for 
some time, it came out a perfect Goat Beeile 
of the same species with the above described. 
There are, however, many different species ot 
this genus of Beetle; and, Edwards is of opi- 
nion, ail of them wood-eaters; one, found in 
a solid piece of mahogany, he had seen ot a 
verv beautiful colour. 

It is remaiked, by Edwards, that the Goat 
Beetle 2:naws the wood in it's perfect state. 
** The du^^t," says he, " that I found in the ca- 
vity of the wood, had not the appearance of 
excrements but of minute chips gnawxd from 
the wood." 

These Goat Beetles appear to be ail natives 
of America. 

THE i 

naturalist's pocket ] 


OR, \ 






CONTAINING, ^^''''-^'M'^' 4s> 

I. The LITTE ANT-EATER. ^vf^ : ' 


3. The small BIND-WEED. ! 





I'HtS curious animal, the Myrmecophaga 
Didaclyla of LinniEus, appears to have been 
first figured by Edwards, under the name of 
the Little Ant-Eater. By the natives of Gui- 
ana, where it inhabits, it is called, BufFon savs, 
the Ouatiriouaou; aild himself names it the 

The Little Ant-Eater, which Is about the 
size of our comm.on English squirrel, is thu;? 
described by Edwards, with his customary 

It is covered with very thick soft hair, 
shining like silk, and a little curled or waved 
on the back. A dusky line runs along the 
back, from the neck to the beginning of the 
tail; and a dusky list, also, on the belly, runs 
parallel to that on the back, but is somewhat 
broader. The hair of the head, body, an'l 
tail, is of a light leddlsh brown; that of the 
legs, and the thickest part of the tail? inclines 



to ash-colour. The hair is every where nearly 
of the same length, even down to the claws. 
The inside of the tail, towards it^s tip, is with- 
out hair, and seems naturally to curl down- 
wards: *' which,'* says Edwards, *' inclines 
me to believe, that it can suspend itself by the 
tail on boughs of trees.'' This idea has been 
confirmed by subsequent observation. 

*' AVhat is most extraordinary in this ani- 
mal," remarks Eav/ards, '* is it's having only 
two claws on each of it's fore feet ;- or, as some 
authors call them, hands. The fingers, or 
toes, from which tlicse claws or nails arise, 
liave no visible division : the outer claw on 
each hand is remarkably large, and the inner 
very small in proportion to it. The hinder 
feet have each of them four claws, pretry 
nearly of an eipial bigness. Bo^h feet and 
hands have something remarkable in their 
stru^^ure: havinor nothinp- in form of a thumb, 
or great toe, as many quadrupeds have; but, 
instead thereof, it hath thick, round, callous 
Iiccls, on all it's feet, between which and it's 
claws the feet :ire Iiollow; so that it seems ca- 
pable of gra'^pir.g small branches of trees bc- 


tween it's heels and claws. It's cars aie small 
and round,, hardly appearing above the hair^ 
It's hinder legs are longer than those forward.. 

The drawing was taken from the stuiFed' 
skin of this animal, well preserved, in the 
possession of his Excellency Count Perron^ 
Ambassador from the King of Sardinia, wha 
was informed that it was brought from the 
Spanish main in America. Anotlier of these 
same animals, preserved in s])ints, I bought by 
commission for the late Sir Hans Sloane, out 
of the late Duke of Richmond\s colle6lion, 
in whose catalogue it was called a species of 
th.e Sloth. It will continue in the British Mu- 
seum, where it may be examined by natura- 
lists. By the help of these two, a more per- 
fe61: figure, &c. is here given, than could have 
been taken from either of them alone : the first 
being only a skin ; and the other closely sealed 
up in spirits of wine, which I was not per- 
mitted to open. I coukl not examine tlie 
mouth of it; but, according to C. Linnasus, it 
is without teeth. See his Svstema Naturae, 
I.ipsice, y\. D. 1748. p. 8. Ord. 3. " Agri.^., 
dcntcs nuUi, lingua lungissima cylrndrica.. 1 5. 



Myrmecophaga, corpus pilosum, auies 
siibrotundae." His second species seems to me 
to be the above figrured and described animal. 
*' 2. Myrmecophaga, manibus da6lylis, 
plantis tetradadtylis :" which, in English," savs 
Edwards, may be rendered, *' the Ant-Eater'* 
— a family of the order of Field Animals, 
of which Linnaeus makes this the second spe- 
cies — with hands having two fingers, and 
feet having four toes." I hnd no figure, or 
any account of this aninial, farther than what 
Linnaeus has given above, which amounts to 
no more than a name. So that, I believe, 
this figure is the iirst that has been made 

This is the compleat account and descrip- 
tion given by Edwards, to accompanv his ex- 
cellent figure, which we have also copied. 

Pennant, who calls it the Least — or, rather, 
with his singularity of orthography, " the 
Lest" — Ant Eater, describes this animal as 
having a conic nose, bending a little down ; 
ears small, and hid in the fur ; two hooked 
claws on the fore feet, the exterior much ihe 

largest ; 


largest; four on the hind feet; head, bod)% 
limbs, and upper part and sides of the tail, 
covered with long, soft, silky hair, or rather 
wool, of a yellov^qsh brown colour ; from 
nose to tail seven inches and a half long; tail 
eight inches and a half, the last four naked 
on the under side ; the tail thick at the base, 
tapering to a point, and prehensile; inha- 
biting Guiana ; and climbing trees in quest of 
a species of Ants which build their nests 
among the branches. 

Seba is said, by Pennant and other respec- 
, table naturalists, " to have described this ani- 
mal by the name of Tamandua sive Coati 
Americana Alba;" or, the Tamandua, or 
White Coati, from America. This, we appre- 
hend to be a mistake, as the Middle, and not 
the Least, Ant-Eater, could alone be desig- 
nated under this chara6ler : that animal, in- 
deed, BufFon says, *' has whitish hair about 
two inches long;" and Pennant describes it to 
be '* shining and hard, of a pale yellow co- 

Our Little or Least Ant-Eater, is thus de- 


scribed by M. De la Borde, the French King's 
Physician at Cayenne, who communicated 
these particulars to the Count De Buffcn, as 
well as the description of two other species, 

*' It has," says M. De la Bordc, bright 
reddish hair, yet somewhat of a golden colour. 
It feeds on ants, which adhere to it*s long 
w^orm-shaped tongue. This animal is not 
larger than a squirrel. It moves slowlv, and 
is easily taken. Like the sloth, it fixes itself 
to a staff; and, as it has no desire to disengage 
itself, it may be carried in this manner where- 
ever we please. It has no cry. V^ e often 
£nd these animals adherino: lo branches bv 
their claws. The females bring forth onl v one 
at a time, in holes of trees, which thev line 
with leaves. Thev feed in the night only. 
Their claws are verv dangerous ; an^d they 
clasp them so close, that it is impossible to 
loose them. Tbey arc not rare, but it is diffi- 
cult to perceive them on the trees.'' 


The Toucan, properly so called, according 
to BufFon, contains only five known species ; 
but this genus subdivides itself into the Tou- 
cans and the Aracaris, These differ from 
oach other, in the first place, as to their size, 
the Toucans being much larger than the Ara- 
earis; secondly, with respe6l both to the di- 
mensions and substance of the bill, that of the 
Aracaris being much the largest, hardest, and 
most solid; and, lastly, in the tail, which the 
Aracaris have long, and very sensibly tapered, 
whereas it is rounded in the Toucans^ The 
names and distin6lions of the two varieties are 
said to have originated with the Brasilians: 
but the natives of Guiana, have made the 
same discrimination ; only calling the Tou- 
cans the Kararouima, and the Aracaris the 
Grigri» In treating generally of these t^^•o 
tribes, under the title Toucans, BufFon maiwcs 
th-e following preliminary remarks. 

What may be termed the physiognomy 
of animated beings,, results from tJie aspe6l ot 



their head in different positions. Their form, 
their figure, their shape, &:c. refer to the ap- 
pearance of their body and of it's members. 
In birds, it is easy to perceive, that such as 
have a small head, and a short slender bill, 
exhibit a delicate, pleasing, and sprightlv phy- 
siognomy : those, on the contrary, with an 
over- proportioned head, such as the Barbets-; 
or, with a bill as large as the head, such as the 
Toucans ; have an air of stupidity, which sel- 
dom falsifies their natural talents. Any person, 
on beholding a Toucan for the first time, might 
take the head and bill, in a front view, to be 
one of those long-nosed masks which terrify 
children: but, when he seriously examined 
this enormous produ^^ion, he would be sur- 
prised that nature had given so huge a bill to a 
bird of such moderate size; and his astonish- 
ment would increase, on refletfling that it was 
useless, and even burdensome, to it's owner, 
obliging it to swallow it's food whole, withou: 
cither dividing or crushing. So tar, too, is 
this bill from serving the bird as an instnmient 
of defence, or even as a ctnintcrpoisc, that it 
a^^s like a weP2,ht on a leyer, which tends 
constantly to destroy the bahmce, and occasion 

a sort 


a sort of hobbling motion. The enormous 
and useless bill of the Toucan, includes a 
tongue still more useless, and of a stru6lure 
very uncommon: it is neither fleshy, nor 
cartilaginous, as in other birds, but a real fea^ 
ther misplaced. 

These birds have a very brilliant plumage, 
the throat being orange of the most vivid hue ; 
and, though such beautiful feathers are found 
only in some of the species, they have given 
name to the whole genus ; Toucan being the 
Brasilian word for a Feather. The Toucan's 
feathers are used, even in Europe, for making 
muffs: and it's huge bill has acquired it the 
honour of being translated among our south- 
ern constellations; where nothing is admitted, 
it has been ingeniously remarked, but what is 
striking and wonderful. 

. The form of this huge unwieldy bill is very 
different in each mandible: the upper is bent 
into the shape of a sickle, rounded above, and 
hooked at the extremity ; the under is shorter, 
narrower, and less curved below. Both liavc* 
indentings on the edges, but they do not fit 



into each other, or even correspond in their re- 
lative positions. The tongue of the Toucan 
is, if possible, still more wonderful than the 
bill. It is the only bird which may be said to 
have a feather instead of a tongue: for a fea- 
ther it certainly is, though the shaft be a carti- 
laginous substance. The Toucan, however, 
is not mute; but utters a sort of whistling, with 
so quick a reiteration, and with such continu- 
ance, that it has been denominated the Preach- 
ing Bird. 

Toucans are scattered throurfi all the warm 
parts of South America, but never appear in 
the ancient continents. They flit ratlicr than 
migrate: following the maturity of the fruits 
on which they feed, particularly those of the 
palm. These trees flourishing most in wot 
situations, the Toucans resort to such spots ; 
and, sometimes, tliey even lodge on the man- 
groves, which grow in deluged mud. Hence, 
fiays Bufi:on, it has been imagined that they 
devour fishes: but, at least, they must be very 
small, since these birds are obliged to swallow 
all their food entire. Thev generally go in 
ijuiall bodies of from six to len; and, owing 



to the shortness of tlieir wings, and the in- 
cumbrance of their enormous bill, their flight 
is heavy and laborious. They rise, however, 
above the tallest trees, on the summits pf 
which they are almost always seen perched, 
and in continual flutter. But the vivacity of 
their motions dispels not their dull air; for the 
huge bill gives them a serious melancholy 
countenance, and their large dull eyes aug- 
ment the effeSi, In short, though lively and 
a6live, they appear heavy and aukward. As 
they breed in holes abandoned by the Wood- 
pecker, it has been supposed that they exca- 
vated these themselves: but the bill is much too 
thin for any such purpose ; and, as Scaliger 
formerly remarked, being hooked downwards, 
it seems impossible that it should ever make a 
perforation. They lay only two eggs, yet all 
the species contain abundance of individuals. 
When taken young, they are easily tamed; 
and, it is said, will even propagate in the do- 
mestic state. They are not difficult to rear; 
for they swallow whatever is thrown to them, 
"bread, flesh, or fish. They take, with the 
point of their bill, bits held near, toss them 
tip, and receive them in their capacious throat. 



They are so susceptible of cold, that the cool 
of the evening, in the hottest climates, greatly 
afFecls them; and they make beds of herbs, 
straw, even when housed. Their skin is in 
general blue under the feathers ; and their iiesli, 
though black and hard, is said to be palatable. 

The Red-Beaked Toucan, or Ramphastos 
Erythrorhynchos of Linnjeus, is of the big- 
ness of a common tame pigeon, and shaped 
like a jackdaw. The bill, from the angles of 
the mouth to it's point, is six inches and a 
half long ; it's heiglit, or width, in the 
thickest part, a little more than two inches; 
and it's thickness near the head one inch and a 
quarter. It is arched, or rounded, along the 
top of the upper mandible, the under side is also 
round The upper mandible, round it's base, 
or joining to the head, and it's upper part quite 
to it's point, is of a bright yellow colour: it's 
sides are of a fine red or scarlet colour; and 
so is the lower mandible, except at it's base, 
which is purplish. The red, both on the upper 
and under clxap, is clouded more or less in dif- 
ferent parts with black ; so that the point of 
the lower mandible is black. A black list 



passes almost round the bill near it's base, 
which separates the red from the other co- 
lours: between the head and the bill, there 
passes a narrow black line of separation all 
round the base of the bill, in the upper part 
of which the nostrils are placed, which do not 
shew themselves, being almost covered with 
feathers. This, Edwards observes, occa- 
sioned our first natural historians to say, it 
was without nostrils, and set them on strain- 
ing their wits to supply that want some other 
way." Round the eyes, on each side of the 
head, is a space of blucish skin void of fea- 
thers ; above which, the head is black, excej t 
a wliite spot on each side, joining to the base 
of the up]:>cr mandible of the bill. The hinder 
part of the neck, the back, wings, tail, bellv, 
and thighs, are black. The under side of the 
head, the throat, and beginning of the breast, 
are white : between the white on. the breast, 
and the black on the belly, is a space of red 
feathers in form of a new moon, having it's 
points upwards. 'l \\c covert feathers under 
the tail are red, and those above the tail arc 
yellow. The legs, feet, and chiws, are of an 
ash -colour. The toes stand like those of par- 
rots, two forwards and two bchiiuL 



The figure which we have copied, was ori- 
ginallv drawn by Edwards, from a preserved 
specimen of the real bird, of which the bill, 
riead, body, and wings, were perfect, but the tail 
and legs were wanting. " On comparing it,^* 
says he, with the drawings of Surinam birds, 
bv Anna-Maria Marian, in the Museum of 
the late Sir Hans Sloane, I found a draught of 
it as big as life, which agreed exactly with the 
remains of the dried bird, and enabled rae to 
compleat mv figure.'* 

Tt is evidentlv to this species of the Toucan 
that M. De la "Cdndamine refers, when he 
speaks, in his Voyage a la Riviere des Ama- 
zones, of a Toucan whicli he saw on the 
banks of the Maragnon, whose monstrous bill 
was red and yellow j and it'"s tongue,, which 
resembled a fine feather, esteemed by the In- 
dians to have great medicinal virtues. BufFon 
is of opinion, that Edwards'^s Toucan, or Bra- 
silian Pve^ and his Red- Beaked Toucan,, are 
only male and female of the same species. An 
error in which he also implicates IJnuaeus and 
Gmelin, as well as Brisson, Fernandez, and 



The original drawing, which represents this 
very common plant, was made by the ingenious 
Edwards ; who observes, that it is the Smilax 
^enis Minor, or Small Bind-Weed, described 
Gerard's HerbaL " It grows," he adds, 
** very plentifully, on the hedges and banks 
that inclose the fields round London. The 
flower consists of a single leaf; though,, by a 
kind of star, it is divided into live parts. It is 
generally of a reddish or purple colour; and, 
sometimes, so f^iinr, that it is almost white. 
1'he stamina are yellow. I have," concludes 
Edwards, been very careful to express this 
little plant exa6lly according to it's natural 
growth, and the proper diredlion of t]:c 
twining of it's stem round what falls in it's 
way ; with the twist of the flowers before thev 
open, and the form of a seed-vessel soon after 
the flo-wer is fallen off." 

It is not a little remarkable that, in our coU 
kdion of original drawings froa:i tlic plants 


of New South Wales, there is one which ex- 
aclly represents this Small Bind- Weed, in form, 
colour, and size, both of the flower and th^ 

Of the Bind-Weed, -QSuaHy confounded 
witli the Colvolvolus, there are numerous spe- 
cies ; some or other of which are to be found 
in almost every part of the world. Many of 
them have very potent medicinal qualities; 
parcicularly, the Convolvolus tribes. 


naturalist's pocket 







3. The gentian of the DESART, 





The Jerboa, or Dipus of Linnaeus, is a ge- 
nus of animals, consisting of several species: 
the chara6lcristics of wliich are> — that they 
have tw^o cutting teeth in each jaw; two very- 
short fore legs ; two very long hind legs, re- 
•sembling those of cloven-footed water-fowl- 
and a very long tall, tufted at the end. The 
Kangaroo, some naturalists are of opinion^ 
.from it's similar conformation, ought to be 
ranged with the Jerboa, By the Greeks, the 
Jerboa was called Mu? <^/t»?: and, by the Ro- 
mans, Mus Bipes: the Arabian name, ac- 
cording to Dr. Shaw, is Jerboa, or Yerboa;, 
and Edwairds calls it the Gerbua.* 

" These animals,'^ says Buffon, <^ gene- 
rally conceal their hands or fore feet amonp" 


the hair; so that, at first sight, they seem to 
have only two feet. In transpo-rting them- 
selves from place to place, they do not v,-alk^ 
or advance one foot after another, but leap 
nimbly to the distance of three or four feet* 



When reposing themselves, they sit on their 
knees, and sleep only during the day. Their 
dispositions are mild, and yet they can never 
be tamed beyond a certain point. They dig 
holes in the earth like rabbits, and in a much 
shorter time. About the end of summer, they 
lay up grain and herbage in their magazines ; 
where, in cold countries, they pass the winter.*' 

The Egyptian Jerboa, or Dipus j^^gyptius of 
Linnjeus, which ij the animal we have figured 
in the annexed print, is a species described by 
Pennant, as inhabiting *' Egypt, Barbary, Pa- 
lestine, the desarts between Bassora and Alep- 
po, the sandy trails between the Don and 
Volga, and the hills south of the Irtish, from 
Fort Janiyschera to the Seven Palaces, where 
the Altaic mountains begin. It is," he says, 

the Mus Sagitta of Pallas; the Mus Jaculus 
of Linnaeus ; as well as the Daman Israel, or 
Lamb of the Isiaclitcs, of the Arabs; and 
supposed to be the Saphan, or Coney, of Holy 
Writ, our Rabbit being unknown in the Holy 
Land. Dr. Shaw met with this species on 
Alount Libanus, but distinguishes it from the 
Jerboa. It is also the Mouse of Isaiah, Ixvi. 



17. The word Achbar, which is in the ori- 
ginal, signifying a male Jerboa. This, and 
ihe Great Siberian Jerboa, which are botli 
found to extend to the colder regions, grow 
torpld on any approach of cold, and remairi 
in that state till they are revived by a change 
of weather. Pallas denominates this class, 
the Species Lethargicre.'* ?';'rM - 

In the above account, from Pennant, wf 
suspecl some contusion : and incline to agree 
with BufFon, in the distimSlions which he 
makes between the Tarsier, or Woolly Jer- 
boa, which he asserts to be an undoubted par- 
ticular species, because it has five toes on each 
foot, like those of a Monkcv ; the Jerboa, 
properly so called, which is our Egvptian Jer- 
boa; theAlagtaga, with legs like those of the 
Jerboa, but having five toes on tlie fore feet, 
and three onlv, with a short spur, which niav 
pass for a thumb, or fourth toe, on the hind 
feet; and the Daman Israel, or Lamb of Is- 
rael, which may be the Miis Longipes of Lin- 
naeus, having four toes on tlic fore fjet, and 
five on those behind. Alar-tao^a, which is the 
Tartarian name of that species of the Jerboa^ 


is said, bv Messerchmid, to signifv *' an ani- 
mal which cannot walk." The word Alar;- 
taga, however, Bnffon remarks, appears to be 
nearlv the same with Letaga, which is applied 
to the Flying Squirrel. *' Hence," savs he, 
*' I am inclined to believe, that Alagtaga. as 
well as Letaga, are generic rarherchan speciric 
names, and that they denote a Flving Animal ; 
c^peciallv, as Strahlenberg, quoted bv Gmclin, 
calls this animal ths Flvlno- Hare." 


The Jerboa is said by^ufFon to be common 
in Circassia, Egypt, Barbary, and Arabia ; 
and the Alac;tacj;a in Tartarv, aloncr the WgI- 
ga, and as far as Siberia. It is seldom, ]:e 
observes, that the same animal inhabits cli- 
mates so difFerent ; and, when it does happen, 
the species undergoes great changes. This w e 
presume to be the case with the Jerboa; of 
vhich, notwithstanding these differences, tlic 
Alagtaga, seems to be onlv a variety. With 
regard to tlic Daman, or Lamb of the Chil- 
dren of F^rael, which seems to be a kind of 
jerboa, because ir's tore legs are rcmarkablv 
shorter than the hind, having never seen this 
animal, wc cannot do better than copy the re- 


marks of Dr. Shaw, who had an opportunity 
of comparing it with the Jerboa, and speaks 
of them as two distinct species. *' The Da- 
man," savs this author, *' is hkewlse an ani- 
mal of Mount Libanus, though common in 
other places of this country. It is a harmless 
creature, of the same size and quality as the 
rabbit; and with the like incurvating posture 
and disposition of the fore teeth. But it is of 
a browner colour, with smaller eyes, and a 
head more pointed, like the Marmots. 1'he 
fore feet likewise are short, and the hinder are 
nearly as long in proportion as those of the 
Jerboa. Tliough this animal is known to 
burrow sometimes in the ground; yet, as it*s 
usual residence and refuge are in the holes and 
clifts of the rocks, v/e have so far a more 
presumptive proof, that this creature may ra- 
ther be the Suphan of the Scriptures, than the 
Jerboa. 1 could not learn, why it was called 
Daman Israel, i. e. Israel's Lamb, as tlicse 
tvords are interpreted." Prosper Alpinus, 
who mentioned this animal before Dr. Shaw, 
szys that it*s flesh makes excellent eating, and 
that it is larger than the r'uronean rabbit. But 
this last fadl; BufFon adds, appears to be sus- 



piclous : for Dr. Shaw has omitt-ed this pas- 
sage of Prosper Alpinus, though he transcribes 
all the other remarks of that author. 

Edwards, hi describing the Egyptian Jerboa, 
•which he figured from the living animal in Lon- 
don, observes, that it's general form resembles 
that of the rat. The head is shaped nearly like 
a rabbit's : the ears are shorter. The eves 
stand pretty much out of the head. The nose is 
void of hair, of a flesh- colour. It's teeth are 
like those of a rabbit. The skin is covered, 
on the upper side of tiie head and back, v.itli 
brownish hair, of tlic colour of a wild rabbit. 
The under side of the head, the throat, belly, 
and insides of the thighs, are covered with 
white hair. On the lower part of the back 
is a crescent, composed of black hair, the 
horns of which turn on the sides towards the 
head. The paws forward have tour toes witli 
claws, and a rudiment of a toe with no claw. 
7"hese are void of hair, as well as the liinder 
legs, and of a flesh-colour. It generally hides 
it's fore feet in it's fur, so as to seem to have 
onlv the two hinder legs, which are very long, 
having only three toes, and are bare above the 



first joint, so that they appear like birds legs of 
the wading kind. It's progression is by hop- 
ping, which it can do very quick, three or four 
feet at once. I'he tail is long, and of the co- 
lour of the back ; except towards the end^ 
where it becomes black and bushy, the very 
tip being white. It never touches the ground 
,with it's fore feet, but holds it's food in them 
like a squirrel. It is said to have but one 
Tent, as in birds ; but this," says Edwards, 
I cannot affirm, as I could not conveniently 
handle the living animal, which would bite 
when held fast. It seems to be a very harm- 
less creature; and feeds much in the same 
manner that rabbits and hares do, eating corn 
and herbs of many sorts. It is more strong, 
and keeps closer to it's hutch in the day-time, 
than in the dusk of the evening; when it ven- 
tures forth, and hops more familiarly, and with 
less fear, about the room where it is kept: this 
inclines me to believe that it is naturallv a 
nocturnal animal." 

Pennant says, of tliis animal, that it is as 
singular in it's motions as in it's form ; always 
Stands on it's hind-feet, the fore feet perform- 


ing the ofnce of hands. It runs fast; and, 
when pursued, jumps five or six feet from the 
ground. It burrows like rabbits ; keeps close 
-in the dav ; sleeps rolled up ; is lively during 
night; and, when taken, emits a plaintive fee- 
ble note. It feeds on vegetables, and has 
great strength in it's fore feet. Two,'' adds 
Pennant, *' which I saw living in London, 
burrowed almost through the brick wall of 
the room they were in ; came out of their hole 
at night, for food ; and, v.hen caught, were 
much fatter and sleeker than while confined 
to their box\" 



Though the genus of Fly-Catchers, of 
the Muscicapa of Llnnaeas, is largely treate4 
of by BufFon ; who describes two species as 
found in Europe, eight in Africa and the warni 
regions of Asia, and thirty in America ; it ii 
not a little remarkable, that he seems to have 
entirely overlooked this Yellow-Rumped Fly- 
Catcher of Edwards. To us, as well as to 
this last naturalist, it appears that the bird in 
question is an indisputable Fly-Catcher; and 
it cannot be well doubted that Edwards, who 
had this bird, preserved dry, sent from Ameri- 
ca, by his friend Mr. William Bartram of 
Pennsylvania, himself no contemptible natu- 
ralist, received it under the appellation which 
he has given it in his inestimable work. 

The Yellow-Rumped Fly-Catcher is very 
little larger than the figure, as represented in 
the annexed print ; and has a pleasing appear- 
ance, as well in it's general form, as in the 



clidste disposition of it^s agreeably diversified 
hues. We need only to give, in addition to 
this delineation of Edwards, the excellent de- 
scription of that able naturalist, for a com- 
pleatiy perfedt idea of the bird. 

It has,'' says he, a slender bill, bend- 
ing a little downwards at it*s point, and of a 
dusky colour, but a little lighter at the base of 
the lower mandible. The top and sides of the 
head round the eyes, are of an ash colour, 
which gradually becomes of an olive green on 
the hinder part of the neck and back, which 
is sprinkled with black spots. The throat, 
breast, and rump, are of a bright yellow co- 
lour. The breast is marked with black spots 
like drop-pearls. The thighs, belly, and co- 
vert-feathers under the tail, are white. The 
wings are of a very dark ash-colour : the tips 
of the first and second rows of covert-feathers 
are white, and form two oblique bars across 
each wingi the quills next the back are also 
edged with white. The covert-feathers with- 
in-side the wings are white: the insides of 
the quills arc ash-coloured, with narrow edges 
of white on their inner webs. The tail fea- 


thers, except the two middlemost, which are 
black, have the middle pans of their inner 
webs white, their tips and bottoms being 
blackish. The covert-feathers on the upper 
side oi^ the tail are black. The legs and feet 
are made as in most other small birds, and of 
a dusky colour.'* 

It has been judiciously remarked by BufFon, 
that the useful destination of the Fly-Catchers 
will occur to the most superficial observer. 
The insert tribes elude the interference of 
man ; and, though despicable as individuals, 
they often become formidable by their num- 
bers. I nstances are recorded of their multi* 
plying to such an amazing degree as to darken 
the air; of their devouring the entire vegeta- 
ble produdllons ; and, of their carrying in 
their train the accumulated ills of famine and 
pestilence. Happily for mankind, such cala- 
mities are rare, and Nature has wisely pro- 
vided the proper remedies. Most birds search 
for the eggs of inse6ls ; many feed on their 
groveling larvae ; some subsist on their cms- 
taceous chrysalides ; and the Fly- Catchers 
seize them after they escape from prison, ex- 


ulting on their wings. Hence, in autumn, 
when these birds migrate into other climates^ 
the swarms of gnats, flies, and beetles, are in 
our latitudes more than usually numerous. 
But, in the tropical countries, where heat and 
moisture conspire to ripen the exuberance of 
insecl life, the Fly-Catchers are more essen- 
tial. All Nature is balanced, and the circle of 
generation and destru6\:ion is perpetual ! The 
philosopher contemplates, with tender melan- 
choly, this cruel system of war; he vainly 
strives to reconcile it with his ideas of bene- 
volence of intention : but he is forcibly struck 
with the nice adjustment of the various parts ; 
their mutual connection and subordination ; 
and the unity of plan which pervades the 

By such excellent, such noble refle(Sl:ions, 
BufFon abundantly compensates for his occa- 
sional imperfections in what may be denomi- 
nated the mechanism of natural history ! 


IHE Gentian, or Gentiana. of Linnsus, 
takes it's name from Gentiiis, a King of II- 
lyriiim, who first discovered the virtues of 
this genus of plants. It is also called Fell- 
wort, and is sometimes described as the Gall 
of the i'^arth, from it's extreme bitterness. Se- 
v( ial of the species are named, the Lesser 
Centaury, Greater Centaury, See. 

The generic chara6ter.s are — that it has a 
permanent empalement ta the llowcr, which is 
cut into five acute segments. Hie flower has 
one petal, which is tubulous, and cut into five 
parts at the tops,, wlikh are flat. It has five 
awl-shaped stamina, which are shorter than 
the petal, terminated by single summits. Iii 
tlie centre is situated an oblong cvlindrical. 
gcimen, having no style, but crowned by two 
oval stigmas.. The germen afterwards be- 
comes an oblong taper-pointed capsule, witlr 
one cell, containing many small seeds tastcncd. 
to the valves of the capsule 


This genus of plants is ranged in the se- 
cond se6lion of LinncEUs's hfth class, ^vhich 
includes the plants whose flowers have five 
stamina and two stigmas. Tournefort places 
the Gentian in the third secrtion of his first 
class, which includes the herbs with a bell- 
shaped flower of one leaf, whose pointal be- 
comes a dry capsule, which in some have but 
one, and in others have many cells. 

Of the species, which are numerous, twelve 
are described bv Miller. Their medical vir- 
tues, which may, perhaps^ be considered as 
nearly similar, are very great. 

The Gentian of the Desart, from America, 
^vhere it is said to be rare, though it approxi- 
mates several species, and particularly those 
produced among the Alps and Appenines, 
seems to have escaped the notice of niost na- 

The drawing of this plant was sent to Kng- 
land, by Mr. Bartram of Pennsvlvania ; who 
calls it, the Autumnal Perennial Gentian of the 
Desart, and descril>cs it as follows — 



It produces three or four stalks from one 
root, each of about a foot high, and some stalks 
produce two flowers. The flowers are of a 
fine blue colour ; the stalks and leaves green. 
The flowers keep long in their beauty, and 
■the roots live many years. 

This plant is scarce in Pennsylvania: and 
Catesby, in his History of Carolina, has given 
a different species of the Gentian. 

Of the peculiar medicinal virtues of this 
Gentian of the Desart, we are wholly unap- 
prized, though it probably corresponds with 
those of tlic species which it so mucli re- 
sembles. It's rareness may be supposed to 
have prevented it's importation into ii'urope ; 
"where, indeed, the Gentians, of various de- 
scriptions, very sufficiently abound. 

All the modern Knglisli naturalists, who 
mention the Gentian, take notice of a fatal ac- 
cident, whicli happened many years ago, in 
this country, from the unfoitunatc mixture of 
the root of the Henbane, in a ])arccl of the 
Gentian rout, which it externally resembles, 



and the incautious use of which was attended 
with the most calamitous efFedls. 

The very httle probability, however, of anv 
similar mistake ever again happening, ought 
not to deter us from a free use of one- of the 
most potent and salutary bitters in the whole 
circle of the materia medica. 


naturalist's pocket 




N» XXXV, Z^^-' 

CONTAINING, \^ . ', 





The Opossum, or Didelphis of Linnseus, 
is a peculiar genus of animals, consisting of 
many species, whose generical charadleristics 
are thus described^ — • 

The fore-teeth are very small, and rounded,: 
of these, there are ten in the upper jaw, with 
two intermediate ones longer than the rest ; 
in the lower jaw, there are eight, with two 
intermediate ones broader than the rest, and 
very short. The tusks are long, and the grin- 
ders knobbed. The tongue is furnished with 
a fringe of pointed papilliB. In most species, 
tiie female has a pouch, or false belly, within 
which the teats are placed- In general, too^ 
the tail is long, slender, and naked. • 

Buffbn says, " tlie Opossum is an Ameri- 
can animal, and easily distinguished from, all 
oihers, by two very singular chara6lers: 
1. Under the belly of the female there is h 
large cavity, in wlii«. Ivshe receives and siickics 


her young. 2. In both male and female, the 
first toe of the hind feet has no claws, and is 
separated from the rest, like the thumb in the 
human hand ; while the other toes of the same 
feet are placed near each other, and armed 
■with crooked claws. The first charadler has 
been remarked by some travellers and natura- 
lists; but the second has entirely escaped them. 
It was," adds BufFon, " first observed bv Ed- 
ward Tyson, an English physician. He is 
the only author who has given a good descrip- 
tion of the female ; and, a few years after, Mr. 
Cowper, a celebrated English anatomist, com- 
municated to Tyson the observations which he 
had made on the male. Other authors, and 
particularly the nomenclators, who perpetually 
multiply species without necessjtv, have com- 
mitted a num])er of blunders with regard to 
this animal, which we must endeavour to cor- 
re6l." Accordingly, the Count Dc BulTon 
enters into a long critical discussion ; of mucli 
ingenultv, it must be confessed, but so far 
from proving satisfa6lory, that he is after- 
wards, on farther information, obliged to ac- 
knowledge himself in a very considerable er* 
ror. The fa6l seems to be, that we are all 



more or less under the influence of particular ! 
prejudices ; and that we have, generally, too j 
little charity, for those who are attached to J 
notions, perhaps not more erroneous or ah- i 
surd than those entertained by ourselves, but i 
only of a different nature. Buffon, adverse to 
the dry and unentertalnlng manner of the mere | 
nomenclator, treats with too much disdain the ' 
labours of intelligent and ingenious men, whose 
diligent research, patient investigation, and ; 
well considered arrangement, not only entitle 
them to the approbation, and even the applause, 
of mankind, for smoothing the study of the | 
science of nature; but who, Buffon himself, i 
on innumerable occasions, is compelled abso- i 
tutdy to copy, and without whose assistance ! 
his valuable investigations would probably | 
have proved less attradlive, as well as less en- \ 
titled to universal regard. No slave of sys- 
tem, however, can more rigorously contend 
for his favourite arrangement of any particu- 
lar species ; nor any nomenclator for his ' 
sele6l name of distindiion ; than Buffon con- j 
stantly labours to establish his favourite doc* 
trine, that the animals of the Old World, | 
as Europe, Asia, and Africa, are denominated, : 

wiU ^ 

vIP.Gl^:IA^^ oPossu:.r. 

will never be found precisely the same in Ame- 
rica, or the New World, unless thev are 
transported thither.'* This rule, though very 
general, has certainly, like most other general 
"rules, as they are called, many exceptions. 

^ Pennant, in his description of the Virginian 
'Opossum, which is the objedl of our at pre- 
sent more particular attention,. as if resolved to 
-be even with the grand enemy of systematical 
authors, expressly savs — " M. De BufFon 
seems net to be acquainted with this animal; 
but has compiled an account of it's manners, 
and colledled the synonyms of it. Tiie iigures 
which he has given, belong to other species, 
■as does the description." Amidst all this op- 
position of sentiment, created by prejudice, 
we are to seek for truth, wherever it may 
be found, and however it may be enveloped ; 
.•without being always quite certain, that we 
are not ourselves cquallv swaved by prejudice. 
Some conlusion we perceive in Buti'on's ac- 
count of the Virginian Opossum ; which Pen- 
jiant, perhaps, too gencrallv censures. From 
both these ingenious men, however, material 
assistance is to be 



The names of the Opossum are mime- i 
■rous : it is called, by the Brasilians, Sarlgue, 
Sarigoi, Serwoi, Carigue, or Carigueya; by 
-the Mexicans, Tlaquatzin ; by the inhabitants i 
of the Antilles, and Peruvians, Manitou; in 
Louisiana, Rat Sauvage, Rat de Bols, or Wood , 
Rat; byGesner, A]drovandus,&:c. Simi-Vulpa, '\ 
and Vulpes Major Putoria ; in the East Indies, • 
Cerignon ; and by Seba, Brisson, &c. the Phi- : 
lander. Seba enumerates three species of the \ 
Philander, which BufFon pronounces the same ; i 
but afterwards, in his Supplement, is con- j 
vinced, by a criticism of M. De Vosmaer, 
Director of the Prince of Orange's Cabinet of 
Natural History, that he had been mistaken, 
though he still admits only two distinct species. 

Our Virginian Opossum, we have figured 
from what Pennant justly calls tlie very ' 
fiithful representation in the Philosopliical 
.Transa6lions." Tlie usual lengtli of tliis ani- 
mal, from the tip of the nose, to the base of 
.the tail, is about twentv Indies; and the tail 
is about a foot long. It has a long, sharp- 
pointed nose ; large, round, naked, and very 
thin black cars, edged with pure while; and 



small, black, lively eyes. There are longsriti 
hairs on each side of the nose, and behind th'e 
'eyes. The face is covered with short, soft, 
white Jiairs ; the space round the eyes being 
dusky. The neck is ver\^ short; and, it's sides 
are of a dirty yellow, but the hind part, as 
well as the entire back of the animal, is co- 
vered with soft, uneven hairs, two inches long, 
the bottoms of which are of a yellowish 
white, the middle parts black, and tlie ends 
whitish. The sides are clothed with dirty and 
dusky hair; the belly is covered with soft, 
woolly, dirty white hair; the legs and thighs 
are black ; the feet duskv ; and the claws 
white. The base of the tall is covered with 
long hairs, like those of the back ; but the rest 
of the tail is covered with small scales r the 
half next the body is black, the rest white. 
This tail, which has a disgusting appearance, 
from it^s similitude to the bodv of a snake, 
possesses the same prehensile qualitv as that of 
some monkies. .On the lower part of the belly 
of the female there is a large pouch ; in which 
the teats are placed, and where ih.e voung shel- 
ter. This species, which inliabits Virginia, 
Louisiana, Me.xieo, Brazil, and P;-ru, is very 



destni6tive to poultry ; sucking the blood, with- 
out eating the flesh. It feeds, also, on roots^ 
and wild fruits. It walks or runs slower 
than most animals ; but, in climbing trees, is 
very aftive. It hangs suspended by it*s tail 
from the branches, and swings itself among 
the boughs of the neighbouring trees, in search 
of birds and their nests. After killing a small 
bird, it is said to lay down it's prey in an 
exposed situation near a tree; then, mounting 
the tree, to suspend itself by the tail on a 
branch near the bird, with it's head down- 
wards, and wait patiently till some carnivo- 
rous bird comes to carrv it off, on which it 
instantly darts, and thus makes a prey of both. 
A man may easily overtake this animal ; and, 
when caught, it feigns itself dead : but, it is not 
.easily killed, being as tenacious of life as a 
cat. The female makes a warm nest of dry 
grass, in some thick bush at the foot of a tree ; 
bringing forth from four to six young at a 
•time, which immediately take shelter in tlic 
pouch or false belly, and fasten so closely to 
the teats as not to he separated without diffi- 
culty. They are blind, naked, and incre- 
dibly small, so as to resemble foetuses. In 



this receptacle, therefore, they continue with 
a firm adherence to the teats, till thev at- 
tain a perfe6l form, strength, sight, and' hair; 
after which, they occasionally run into the 
pouch, and the mother thus carries them 
about. During what may he termed the 
second gestation, the female demonstrates 
such an excessive attachment to her young, 
that she will suffer any torture, rather than 
permit this receptacle to be opened : for, by 
aid of some very strong muscles, she has the 
power of opening or closing it at pleasure. 
M. Le Page du Pratz, in liis liistoire de la 
Louisiane, says that, " the female, when 
taken, allows herself, without shewing tiic 
smallest sign of life, to be suspended by the 
tail above a tire. The tail adheres of it>:elf ; 
and both the morlier and lier voung thus pe- 
rish, tor no torture is sufficient to make her 
open her pcnich."" 

The flesh of the old animals is said to re- 
semble, in goodness and quality, tliat of a 
-sucking pig; but the skin is exceedingly fa^tid. 
The Iridian womcji dvo the hair, and weave 
it into garters and giulles. . t 

<l A M A T C A O O l> !• V. C . 


This bird seems considered, by naturalists in 
'general, as the Piciis Carolinus of Linnaeus;, 
the Pious Varlus Jamaicensis, of Brisson; the 
Picus Varius Medius, of Sir Hans Sloane , 
the Picus Varius Medius Jamaicens-is, of Pay; 
the Carolina Woodpecker, of Pennant and 
Latham; the Red- Bellied Woodpecker, of 
Catesby; the Variegated Jamaica Wood- 
pecker, of BufFon ; and the Jamaica Wood- 
pecker, of Edwards. 

BufFon says, that " tliis Woodpecker is ol 
a middle size, between the Green Wood- 
pecker and th-e Spotted Woodpecker of Eu- 
rope. Catesby," he remarks, *' makes it too 
small, when he compares it to the Spotted 
Woodpecker; and Edwards represents it too 
large, in asserting it to be equal in bulk to the 
Green Woodpecker. I1ie same author," adds 
BufFon, *' reckons only eight quills in tlic tail: 
but, probably, tlic two others were wimiin!;- 



in the subjedl which he describes ; for all the 
Woodpeckers have ten quills in the tail." 

V/ho would imagine, after seeing the above 
refledlion on Edwards, that there is not, in 
fadi", throughout his whole description, a sin- 
gle syllable of comparison with the Green 
Woodpecker, in any respe6l whatever ? Yet 
this is most literally true: nor h^s Edwards, 
in his account of the Jamaica- Woodpecker, 
even mentioned the name of the Green ^Vood- 

What he does say, we shall literallv give, as 
by far the best description of this bird with 
which we are acquainted. 

The wing, when closed, is five inches 
long : the bill, from it's point, to the corners 
of the mouth, is an inch and a half. In the 
wing I counted nineteen quills: in the tail, 
eight feathers; which seemed to me to be 
perfect, thougli ^Villughby says, that Wood- 
peckers have ten feathers in their tails." 

I'hus it appears, that Edwards was by no' 


jam/ica woodpecker. 

means unapprlzed, that the Woodpeckers in i 
general have ten tail feathers ; but, on view of 

this bird, found it to contain only eight, though ^ 

the tail seemed to him perfe6l. He does not ^ 

insist that it was so; and this diffident expres-' j 

sion is unfairly converted into a positive asser- 1 

tion against him, by BufFon, who is not al- ! 

ways very precise in his distindlions. \ 

** The bill," continues Edwards, Is straight, ! 
pretty sharp-pointed, and black. It can ex- ; 
tend the tongue to a good length ; which is 
pointed and horny at the end, fit to strike in- 
scS.s. The fore part of the head, all round , 
the base of the bill, and beyond the eyes, is of j 
a yellowish white. The hinder part of the [ 
head and neck is of a fine red or scarlet co- 
lour. Tlje throat, and breast, are of a dirtv 
olive colour; which, gradually, becomes red- 
dish on the belly, with transverse dusky lines ; 
on the lower belly and thighs. The covert- | 
feathers under the tail are marked with dusky '\ 
and whitish transverse broken lines. The 
back, upper side of the wings, rump, and tail, 
irc black ; with narrow transverse lioht-brown ' 
ines on the back, whiter on the wings, and ' 

broarder, \ 


broader, and white, on the rump. The two 
outer feathers of the tail have wiiite spots on 
their outer webs. The innef coverts of the 
wings are dusky, and white, in a small trans- 
verse mixture. The under side of the tail, 
and the insides of die quills, are of a very dark 
ash-colour. The inner webs of the quills are 
barred across with white. The lec-s andfeet are 
made, as in other A\^oodpeckers, wi:h strong 
claws, all of a black or dusky colour." 

Edwards says, that this bird was brouglir. 
in 1753, from the island of Jamaica, by Dr. 
Patrick Brovrne; who obliged him with it, to 
make a drawing. It is, he rem?.iks, the same 
that is described by Sir Hans Sloanc, in his 
Natural Kistor}- of Jamaica ; " bi:t.'Vsavs 
Edwards, *' as Sir Hans had the misfortune 
to meet witli a vcrv bad draughtsman in Ja- 
maica, to draw his birds, his figures of tliera 
are of little value; for which reason, I have 
tliought proper to make tliis second d^awing, 
which betier agrees with th.c lionest descrip- 
tion mv late good friend and patron has givea 
of this bird. This is the onlv Woodpecker, 
stri^ly sc ciUcv-^. fcr.r.u in tlic- island of Ja-. 


maica, either by Sir Hans Sloane, or Dr. 
Browne, who has- lately travelled ail over the 
island in search of it's natural produ6lions* 
Though there arc a good number of Wood- 
p'eckers on the continent of America — Gatesby 
has described about eight different species of 
them — the nearest to this of Jamaica, thoiigU 
Something different, is his Red -Bellied Wood- 
pecker, vol. I. p. 19. of his Natural liistotf 
of Carolina.'* 

BufTon appears, therefore, to be also mis- 
taken, in asserting that, " this bifd occurs 
likewise in Carolina:'* as well as in stathig; 
that, ** notwithstanding some differences, it 
may be recognized in the Red-Bellied Woo'd!- 
pecker of Catcsby.'* 

Yet, into this last error, it may be pVc- 
vSumed, not only Buffon, but LinniEus him- 
self, as well as Pennant and Latham, have all 
fallen. So, at least, it appears to us, who fcel 
satisfied by the reasoning of Edwards. 

** Those," says this excellent naturalist, 
wlio would see very particular observations 



on the motion, Sec. of the tongue of the 
Woodpecker, may consult Meraoires de i'Aca- 
demie, &c. of Paris, for the year 1709, or 
the Abridged English Translation, by Martvn 
and Chambers. The figures, both in the ori- 
ginal, and translation, are very elegant. There 
is also an account of it's anatomy in the Phi- 
losophical Transactions, No. 350. See, also, 
a figure of the head, and tongue, in Willugh- 
by's Ornithology, Tab. xxi. The same struc- 
ture of the tongue runs through the whole 
genus of A\^oodi)eckcr?. The abovemen- 
tioned Dr. Browne," concludes Edwards, "has 
given a description of this bird; [See his Na- 
tural History of Jamaica, Folio, London l"5o, 
p. 414.] but omitted giving a figure, having 
referred his readers to my Natural History, 
for the figures of scvtral of the birds which lie 
has described.'* 



To this elegant flower, which is a produC' 
tion of New South W ales, we have given the 
appellation of the Finger Flower: not that we 
can decidedly pronounce it a species of the 
Fox-Glove, or Digitalis of Linnsus, on a 
bare inspe6lion of the original drawing, which 
is all we know, with certainty, respe6ling the 
form of this' non~descript plant. 

If not of the Fox-Glove family, the flowers 
bear a not very remote resemblance, in shape, 
at least, to tliose of that elegant plant ; suffi- 
ciently justifying us, as we apprehend, ia 
calling it the Finger Flower of New South 
Wales. The flowers are smaller than those of 
the Common European Fox-Glove, but tliey 
are incomparably more beautiful than ar>y 
known species of that handsome plant. 

It is, we are informed, a perennial plant, 
rising to the height of about tlircc feet ; flou- 


rishes in sandy or gravelly soil ; and is in full 
bloom about September, when the flowers 
emit a most agreeable odour. 

If this last circumstance, added to the not 
very dissimilar form of the flower, should in- 
cline som.e botanists to consider it as alh'ed to 
the Hyacinth, we shall not be disposed to 
enter any violent protest against it's claim of 
kindred with even that elevated family. 

The different species of the Digitalis are 
well known to possess verr strong medicinal 
powers ; but we arc vet to learn, whether t]:ie 
Finger Flower participates in these salutary 
Qualities, having been unable to obtain any 
^atisfa^toiT answer to our enquiries on that 


naturalist's pocket 




N^ XXXVI. A % 




3. The yellow FRAGILE FLOWER. 






This anlmal, with the fate of too mauy 
others, appears to have been very imperfectly 
, described by naturalists. Pennant, who secnib-. 
to have most particularly described it, has not 
quoted any Linnaean name : though some late. 
^vriters suppose it to be the Erinaceus Ecau- 
datus, and others tlie Erinaceus Setosus, of 
that great Swedish naturalist; the latter beini; 
denominated the Tendrac, and the former tli'-; 
'I'anrcc. Perhaps, Pennant might be of opi- 
nion, with us, that there is too much uncer- 
tainty in both these shght accounts of Liii- 
naeus, for either to be hastily adopted, notwitli- 
standing it is vSufficientlv clear that the Asiatic 
Hedgehog was meant in .one or other of the 

BufFon describes, together, tlie Tanrec and 
tke Tendrac, or Asiatic Hedgehog, in one 
combined account: yet he scarcely admits 
-them to be of the Hedgehog race; and, in a 
note on this article, :severelv attacks the Eri- 
.naceus Americanus Albus.of Seba. I'hls 
■ ' - Hedgehog,- 


Hedgehog," says he, which Seba savswas 
sent to him from Ambovna, has so strong a 
resemblance to the Tendrac, that it must be 
the same animal ; and, if it be a native of 
Madagascar, it ought not to be found in Ame- 
rica. With regard to this animal, Scba is 
wrong in every article ; for it. neither belongs 
to America, nor is it white, but only less brown 
than our European Hedgehog.'* 

In these reflections on Seba, what reader 
docs not recognize the prejudice of BufFon, 
who considers this author as a formidable ene- 
my of his favourite system respeding the con- 
stant difFerenccs between the animals of the 
old and the new worlds ? A\'hether the charge 
against Seba be true, or false, the mode of 
reasoning which Buffon has on this occasion 
adopted, is palpably fallacious, and altogether 
unworthy of that great man ! 

From a comparison of wliat is said bv Buf- 
fon, on the subject of our Asiatic Hedgehog, 
with the description of Pennant, will sulhci- 
cntly appear, as we apprehend, the foundation 
on which we have asseried, that much impcr- 
fc^Ion seems manifestly to prevail In the ac- 


counts given by different naturalists of this 
curious little animal. 

The Tanrecs, or Tendracs," says BufFon, 
thus making them synonimous, " are small 
East Indian animals, which have some resem« 
blance to our Hedgehog, but differ so much 
from it as to constitute a distin6l species. 
This is apparent, independent of inspe6tIon or 
comparison ; for they never roll tliemselves 
up into a ball, like the Hedgehog : and, be- 
sides, the Tanrecs are found in Madagascar ; 
where there are, also, Hedgehogs of the same 
kind with ours, which bear not the name of 
Tanrcc, but are called Sora. There seems to 
be two species, or perhaps two races, of I'an- 
recs. The first, which is nearly as large as 
our Hedgehog, has a muzzle proportionably 
longer than the second ; it's ears are also more 
apparent ; and it has fewer bristles than tlie 
other, to which we liave given the name of 
Tendrac, to distinguish it from the first. This 
Tendrac is not larger than a large rat. It's 
muzzle and ears are shorter than those of the 
Tanrec ; which last is covered with smaller 
bristles, but equally numerous with those of 



the Hedgehog. The Tendrac, on the con- 
trary, has no spines, except on the head, the 
neck, and the withers ; the rest of the bodv 
being covered with coarse hair, Hke a hog's 
bristles. These small animals, which have 
short legs, move very slowly. They grunt, 
and wallow in the mire, like hogs; are fond of 
water, in which they dwell longer than on 
land ; and are caught in salt water, in canals, 
and in small gulphs of the sea. Thev are 
verv ardent in their amours, and multiplv 
greatly. I'hev dig holes in the ground, into 
w'hich they retire^ and remain in a torpid state 
several months. ^\'hile in this state, their hair 
falls off; but it grows again after they awak:. 
They arc generally very fat; and, though their 
flesh is insipid and rccdy, the Indians cat it 
with pleasure." 

The above comprehends all that is said bv 
Buffon on tliis subjccl ; but Pennant has far 
more particularly described the animal which 
we have delineated. 

He calls it the Asiatic Hedgehog, the Little 
Tandrek of Sonncrat, and tlic Tqndrac and 



Tanrec of BufFon. It has, he says,. a long 
slender nose ^ short rounded ears and short 
legs. The body is marked,, longitudinally, 
with five broad lines of black, and the same of 
white, which are continued over the shoulders 
and thighs the white marks consist of short 
.spines the black marks are furnished with 
long loose hairs, which fall quite lo the ground. 
The head and face are black. It has no 
tail. The length of the anknal is seven inches, 
M.. De BufFon has given the figure of a young 

** The other,, or the Tanrec,. is rather larger ;. 
covered with spines only on the top and hind 
part of the head, the top and sides of the 
neck, and the shoulders : the largest were on 
the upper part of the neck,, and stood ere6l ;. 
the rest of the body w^as covered with yel- 
lowish bristles, among which were intermixed 
some that were black and much larger tliaii 
the others. 

** Each of these animals, which arc varieties, 
or young of the same species, had five toes 
on each foot. They inhabit the isles of India, 



and that of Madagascar ; are, when of their 
full growth, of the size of Rabbits, but those 
in the Cabinet of the French King were much 
smaller, being probably young; grunt like 
hogs; grow very fat; multiply greatly; fre- 
quent shallow pieces of fresh or salt water; 
burrow on land ; and lie torpid six months, 
during which time their old hair falls off. 
Their flesh is eaten by the Indians, but is very 
flabby and insipid/* 


Though, with tlie figure of th ks. verv 
beautiful bird; we have adopted also the name 
of p]d\vards, under which it is Hkewise de- 
scribed by Pennant and Latham, we inchne to 
think, with Buffon, that the Manakins, in ge- 
neral, have been too much confounded, by 
naturahsts, with other tribes; and that this 
bird, in particular, is in reality rather a Cotinga 
than a Manakin. 

These birds,'* says Buffon, jpeajclnjg of . 
the ^lanakips, are small, and- handsome: 
the largest are no,t equal in size to a sparro\y^ 
and the others are inferior to that of ^L wren. 
The general chara6lcrs are these: the bill i? 
short, slender, and compressed on the sides near 
the tip ; the upper mandibje is convex abovc^ 
and slightly scallopetl on the edges, rather 
longer than the lower mandil)le, which is plain 
and straight. In all tlicse birds, the tail is 
short, and ^r|Uarc-cut; and the toes have the 



same disposition as the Cock of the Rock, 
the Tody, and the Calao : viz, the middle toe 
is closely connected to the outer toe by a mem- 
brane, as far as the third joint, and the inner 
toe as far as the first joint only. But, as much 
as in that circumstance they resemble the 
Cock of the Rock, so much are they removed 
from the Cotingas: yet some authors,'* says 
BufFon, naming Edwards, in a note, as an in- 
stance, have ranged the Manakins with the 
Cotingas; others/' instancing Klein, " have 
joined them with the Sparrows ; Linnaeus with 
the Titmice; Klein, again, with the Linnets i 
Marcgrave, Willughby, Johnston, Salerne, 
and others, with the Tanagres; and Gerini, 
with the Wren. Other nomenclators, are 
more culpable, for denominating them Pipra, 
or for classing them with the Cock of the 
Rock,'* as is done bv Brisson ; to which 
they bear no analogv, except in this disposition 
of the toes, and in die square shape of the 
tail:* for, besides the total disproportion in 
size, the Cock of the Rock being as large, 
compared with the Manakins, as the Com- 
mon Hen contrasted with a Sparrow, there 
arc many other obvious characters which dis- 


tlnguish them. Their hill is much shorter in 
proportion; they are, generally, not crested ; 
and, in those which have a crest, it is not 
double, as in the Cock of the Rock, lut 
formed by single feathers somewhat longer 
than the rest. We ought, therefore, to re- 
move from the Manakins, not only the Horn- 
bills, but the Cock of the Rock, and reckon 
them an independent genus,'* 

To this account of the Manakins, we shall 
add BufFon's general description of the Co- 
tingas. " Few birds have such beautiful 
plumage as the Cotingas; all those who have 
had an opportunity of seeing them, whe- 
ther travellers or naturalists, seem to liave 
been charmed, and speak of them with rap- 
ture. Nature has sele6led lier choicest and 
her richest colours, and spread them with 
elegance and profusion: the painting glow^ 
with all the tints of blue, of violet, of red, of 
orange, of purple, of snow-white, and of 
brilliant black. Sometimes, these tints meu 
into each other by the sweetest gradations ; at 
others, they are contrasted with wonderful 
taste : the various reflexions heightening and 


ptTii:l>Li:-SkEASTED BLUE manaktt;. 

enliveriing the whole. The wcrth is intrinsic ; 
it is expressive ; it is inimitable ! AH the spe- 
cies — or if we chuse, all the branches — of the 
brilliant family of the Cotingas, belong to the 
Xe-vV Continent; and there is no foundsrion 
for what seme hare alledcied, that ther are 
found in Senegal. Thev appeir to delight in 
warm coutitries: they seldom occur south of 
Brasil, or roam north of Mexico ; and, con*^- 
quentlv, they would hardlv traverse the im- 
menre stretch of ocean that separates the con- 
tinents in those latitudes. All that we know 
of their habits is, that they never perform 
distant journies; but have onlv periodical flit- 
tings, which are confined within a narrow 
circle: thev appear twice a vcarih the planta- 
tions ; and, though thev all arrive nearly at 
the same tl:Te, thev are never observed in 
flocks. Thev generally haunt the sides of 
creeks, in swampv groui^.d, which has occasi- 
oned some to call them water-fowls; tmd Mr. 
Edwards, who was unacquainted with the 
(tf cnomv of the Cotingas, coiijeftured, from 
the striM^lufe of their feet, that thev frequented 
marshes. Ther find, a\nont!j the aquatic 
plants, abundance of k^ec^s on which thev 



feed ; and, particularly, what are' termed Ka- 
rias, in America; and which, according to 
some, are wood-lice; and, according to others, 
a sort of ants. The Creoles, it is said, have 
more motives than one, for hunting after these 
birds : the beauty of the plumage, which pleases 
the eye; and, according to some, the delicacy 
©f the flesh, which delights the palate. But if 
is difficult to obtain both : for the plumaga h 
often spoiled in attempting to skin the bird; 
and this, probablv, is the reason why so many 
imperfedl specimens are now brought front 
America. It is said, that they alight among 
the rice crops, and do considerable injury ; if 
this be true, they have still another reason foi 
destroying them. The si^e varies in the dif-i 
ferent species, from that of a small Pigeon td 
that of a Redwing, or even under. In all of 
them, the bill is broad at the base: the edges of 
the upper mandible, and often those of th^ 
tower, arc scalloped near the tip. The first 
phalanx of the outer toe is joined to the mid-» 
tile toe ; and, lasily, in most of them, the tail 
is a little forked, or notched, and consists of 
twelve quills. 



. Our Purple-Breasted Blue Manakin of Ed- 
"vvards, is said to be, in fa£i:, the Ampelis Co- 
tinga of Linnaeus, and the Cordon Bleu, of 
BufFon. It is called the Thrush of Rio Ja- 
neiro, and the Creoles term it the Hen of the 
Woods. BufFon says, that *^ a bright blue is 
spread on the upper part of the body, of the 
head, and of the neck, on the rump, the supe- 
rior coverts of the tail, and the small coverts 
of the wings: the same colour appears, also, 
on the inferior coverts of the tail, the lower 
belly, and the thighs. A fine violet purple 
covers the throat, the neck, the breast, and a 
part of the belly as far as the thighs ; and on 
this ground is traced, at the breast, a belt of 
the same blue with that of tlie back, and wliich 
has procured this bird the appellation of Blue 
Riband, or Knight of the Holy Ghost. Below 
the first belt, there is, in some subjc6ls. ano- 
ther of a beautiful red, besides many flame- 
spots on the neck and the belly: these spots 
are not disposed regularly, but scattered with 
that negligence in which nature seems to de- 
light, and which art labours in vain to imitate. 
All the quills of the tail, and of the wings, 
are black ; but tlio.^e of the tail, and tlie mid- 


die ones of . the wings, are edged exteriorly 
with blue. The female has neither of these 
belts; nor has it the flame-spots on the belly 
and breast. In every other resped:, it resem- 
bles the male. ' The bill and legs of both are 
black. The tarsus is covered behind with a 
sort of down. ** At Cayenne," says Salernc, 
♦* there are two other Thrushes, which resemble 
this exadlly ; except that the one wants these 
spots, and the other the Blue Riband." 

The bird figured by Edwards, was brought 
to England by Commodore Mitchel, who went 
with Lord Anson on his expedition round the 
world. Edwards conje6lures,'that it was taken 
in some latitude of South America, nearly pa- 
rallel to that of Surinam ; having had several birds 
of this family, as he considered them, though 
smaller, most of which were brought from Suri- 
nam. " The bill," says Edwards, " is black, 
and rather slender than thick ; a little arched on 
the top, and inclining somewhat downwards 
at the point. The top and sides of the head, 
\ipper side of tlie neck, back, rump, thighs, 
lower belly, and covcrt-fcathcrs both above 
and beneath the tail, arc of the finest blue that 



ean be conceived bv the imagination, clouded 
with a little black on the crowij of the head, 
in the middle of the back, and on the feathers 
between the back and wings : there is, also, a 
sBiall border of black round the upper mandi- 
ble of the bill. All the fine blue feathers have 
their bottoms of a black or dusky colour: 
the thrp^it and breast are of an exceeding fine 
reddish purple colour; the bottoqis or downy 
part, of these purple feathers, are quite white. 
The wings are black ; except the lesser covert 
feathers, which *re blue. The inner coverts of 
the wings are black ; the insides of the quills 
are dusky. The tail, legs, ieet, and ciavys, are 
all black. The outer toe in each foot is joined 
to the middlemost toe, as in King-Fishers." 

Edwards, who was an accurate observer, 
and a most exact delineator, affords not tl)e 
smallest liint of the Blue Riband appearance, 
on wliich Buffon eredts his new name of this 
bird: and, afier all, our Purple-Breasted Ma- 
Dakin may pos^iblv be one of the other birds 
mentioned by Salerne, as found at Cavenne, 
and not Euffon^s mofe than in one sense pre- 
sujnptuously named Kni^lit of tj^e ligly Ghost. 

\ i: 1 0^^' V K A Oil. I- V LO H-i: R . 


handsome flower is a native of New- 
South Wales, where the original drawing was 
made of the natural size, being somewhat 
more than twice as large as we have repre- 
sented it in the annexed figure. ■ 

All the information which we have received 
is, that it is a very humble flower, and fouiid 
plentifully in sandy or rocky situations j and^ 
that it is so excessively tender in the yellow 
leaves, as to fall ofF almost constantly on rc» 
moval. ' 

To this last circumstance, it obviously owes 
the name by which we have distinguished it. 
In this property, however, it only resembles 
many known common European flowers •, 
and, among others, the large common But- 
terflower; to which it is in other respe6ls 
somewhat similar, though certainly a more 
grand and beautiful plant. 


naturalist's pocket 





1. The llama. 
3; The purple SHELL FLOWER. 






It is observed by BufFon, tiiat " In all lan- 
guages, two names are frequently bestowed 
on the same animal;, one of which relates ta 
it's state of liberty, and the other to it's do- 
mestic state. The Wild Boar, and the Hog, 
are the same animal ; and these two names 
have no relation to any di{Ference in the na- 
ture of the creatures, but to the condition of 
the species, one part of which is under the 
dominion of man, and the other independent. 
The same remark," says BufFon, who treats 
of tlic Llamas, and tlie Pacos, under one ge- 
neral head, '* applies to the Llamas and Pacos, 
which were the only domestic animals of the 
ancient Americans. These names were ap- 
propriated to them in their tame state: the 
Wild Llama was called Huanacus, or Gua- 
naco ; and the Wild Pacos, Vicuna, or \U 
gogne. I thought this remark ncccssarv," 
adds BufFon, " to prevent confusion. 'J'hese 
animals are peculiar to tl>e New World : they 
even love particular lands, beyond which they 



are never found. They appear to be confined 
to that chain of mountains which extends 
from New Spain to Terra Magellanica : they 
inhabit the most elevated regions of this 
globe; and seem to require a lighter air than 
that of our highest mountains." It is with 
no great regard to consistency, that we after- 
wards find BufFon asserting, that *' these ani- 
mals might be rendered extremely useful to us ; 
for," says he, it is probable, that thev would 
thrive on our Alps and Pvrenees, as well as 
on the Cordelieres :" and, as if this were not 
gufncient, he repeats, for it seems to be a fa- 
vourite idea, '* I am persuaded, as I formerly- 
remarked, that these animals might succeed in 
our mountains, and particularly in the Pyre- 
nees. Those who brought them to Spain, 
did not consider tliat, even in Peru, they sub- 
sist only in the cold region, or on the tops of 
the highest mountains ; that thev are never 
found in low lands ; and that they die in warm 
countries: that, on the conrrarv, they are at 
present very numerous in the neighbourhood 
of tlie Straits of Magellan, where the cold is 
much more intense than in the South of Eu- 
rope ; and consequently tliat, in order to pre- 


serve them, they should be landed, not in 
Spain, but in Scotland, or even in Norway. 
The foot of the Pyrenees, Alps, &c. would 
probably answer the intention still better, 
where they could climb to the region which 
was most agreeable to their constitution. I 
have dwelt the longer on this subje6t," he 
concludes, " because I imagine that these 
animals would be a great acquisition to Eu- 
rope, and produ6live of more real advantage 
than all the metals of the New World ; which 
only load us with a useless weight, since a 
grain of gold or silver was formerly equal in 
value to what now costs us an ounce of these 

Thoujrh Buffon thus treats the Llama and 
Pacos as only tw^o species, Linnssus has di- 
vided them into five: the Camelus Glamii, or 
Llama; the Camelus Huanacus, or Guanaco ; 
the Camelus xVraucanus, or Chilihueqlie; the 
Camelus Vicugna, or Vicugna; and the Ca- 
melus Paco, or Pacos. Pennant, who pur- 
sues a similar arrangement, describes them ail 
as Camels of America ; under the names of 
the Llama, the Vicunna, the Paco, the Gua-' 



naco, and the Chilihueque ; he observes, that 
Mohna, who had frequent opportunity of 
seeing these animals in their native country, 
assures us, that the Llama differs specifically 
from the Guanaco." From the same autho- 
rity, he states, that the Pacos and the Vicunna, 
are both found on the mountains of Peru, in a 
state of nature, but never mix together ; which 
*' destroys the opinion M. De BufFon had, 
that the Paco and the Vicunna were the same 
animal, and that the first was only a AVild Vi- 
cunna." It may seem trivial to notice the 
mistake of Pennant ; who should have said, 
instead of a Wild Vicunna, a tame or domes- 
ticated one, which is the true sense of BufFon. 

Without pursuing a discussion, which would 
carry us much too far, we shall endeavour to 
confine our present attention to the Llama: 
observing, however, that BufFon, who admits, 
between the Llama, and the Pacos, a distinc- 
tion exactly similar to that between the Horse 
and the Ass, seems to us but little warranted 
in uniting their descriptions. 

The Lhma, or Cimclus Glama of Lin- 


naeus, is the Camel of Peru. It has an almost 
even back, a small head, and fine black eyes, 
ilt's neck, which is very long, bends greatly; 
and, on the breast, there is a considerable pro- 
tuberance, kept naturally moist, near the junc- 
!tion with the body, by a greasy exudation. In 
: a tame state, it is cloathed with smooth short 
ihair; but, when wild, the hair is long and 
coarse. The colours vary greatly. Father 
iBlas Vallera, whose account seems to be 
adopted by BufFon, as he remarks that the cat - 
tle of Peru are divided into a large and a 
fimaller kind, and so mild, that children use 
them as they please, says that the tamed Hua- 
nacus — or Llamas, as he evidently means — 
are of different colours, and the wild kind are 
all of a bay brown. " These animals," he 
adds, " are about the height of a stag ; and 
resemble the Camel, only they want the 
bunch, and their neck is long and smooth. 
BufFon says, the Llama is about four feet high; 
it's body, including the neck and head, being 
five or six feet long. The tall is very vshort, 
not exceeding eight inches. The cars, which 
ihc animal moves at pleasure, are four inches 
in length. It has no cutting or canine teeth 



in the upper jaw. The upper Hp is divided 
like that of the hare ; and, from this aperture, 
the creature spits in the face of those who 
olFend it, to the distance of ten paces, with a 
saliva so acrid, that it inflames or blisters the 
skin. The feet are not only cloven, like those 
of the ox ; but they are armed behind with 
spur, which assists the animal in supporting it 
self on rugged and uneven ground. The wool 
or hair, on the back, crupper, and tail, is short 
but, on the flank and belly, it is very long. 

Through the whole extent of Peru, frc 
Potosi to Caracas, these animals are extremel 
numerous : their flesh is good eating ; thei 
wool is excellent ; and their whole lives ar 
spent in transporting the commodities of the 
country. Their common load is a hundred 
and fifty pounds ; they march slowly, and sel- 
dom go more than four or five leagues a day. 
They descend precipitous ravins, and climb 
steep rocks, where even man feats to venture 
They are much employed in carrying the rich 
ores dug out of the mines of Potosi. Bollv 
remarks that, in his time, three hundred tho 
sand of these animals were constantly occu 
pied in this work, 


LLA^f A. 

The growth of the Llama is quick, and it's 
life not long. At three years of age it pro- 
duces ; continues in full vigour till twelve; and, 
at fifteen, is entirely useless. When inclined 
to rest for a few minutes, during it's journey, 
it bends it's knees, and lowers it's body, with 
the greatest precaution, to prevent any de- 
rangement of it*s load; and, rising at the sound 
of the cohdu6lor's whistle, with the like care, 
proceeds on it's journey. While sleeping, or 
ruminating, it rests on it's breast, with it's legs 
folded under it's belly. Some are left un- 
loaded, that they may instantly relieve those 
which begin to be fatigued ; for, it a Llama 
once sinks down with the fatigue of it's bur- 
den, blows will not force it to rise : the only re- 
source is, that of squeezing the testicles, which 
often proves ineftecluai ; and if chastisement 
be brutally persisted in, it at length, in despair, 
strikes it's head on tlie ground, alternately from 
xight to left, till it kills itself. 

Tl:iese animals experience much inconveni- 
ence, from the peculiar stru6lure of the sexual 
organs. The female lias only five teats, and 
seldom produces more than a single young one, 
which follows her the instant it has birth. 



Pennant remarks, that " their botlies are 
covered with fat between the skin and the 
flesh, and they abound with Hood; both re- 
quisite to preserve wanrith m their frozen re- 
sidence/* The wild animals herd together in 
the highest and steepest parts of the hills; and^ 
while thev are feeding, one keeps sentry on 
the pinnacle of some rock : if it perceives the 
approach of any one, it neighs nearly like a 
horse; when the herd takes the alarm, and 
goes off with incredible speed. Thev ont-nia 
all dogs, so that there is no other wav of killing 
them than with a gun^ Their flesh is eaten ; 
with their skin, the Indians make soles to 
their shoes, and the Spaniards fine harnesses for 
their horses ; and their liair is wove into a rich- 
cloth. In a domestic state, thev are peculiarlv 
valuable: their food costs scarcelv anything;. 
their cloven feet prevents the necessity of shoe- 
ing ; and they are never saddleth The thick- 
ness of their long woolly hair prevents them 
from being incommoded by their burden, whicli 
the owner takes care not to place on the hack 
bone, well knowing that it would certainly 
kill them. 

'/ " '/'/-//jF 


The Nutcracker, or Corvus Caryocata6les 
of Linnaeus, was unknown to the Greeks,, 
though it has received the Greek nam-e K^fua- 
KcL\fLiC\i]i, from Ma^vcty a Nut, andjcjsyj'cy, to kill,, 
or destroy, in Latin, it is called Nucifraga,, 
or Nutbreaker ; Ossifragus,. or Stonebrcakcr :. 
and, by some, Turda SaKatilis, or the Stone 
Thrush ;; Pica Abietum Guttata, or the 
Speckled Pine Magpye. The Turks call it; 
Gurga;. the Russians, Kostohryz;. the Pole&^ 
Klesk,. Grabulusk ; the Germans, Nussbret- 
scher, or Nutbreaker, Nuskraelie, or Nut- 
Crow,, Tannen-Hcyer, or Fir-Jay, Stein- 
Heyer,. or Stone-Jay,. Wald-Starl, or Wood- 
Stare, and Turkischer Holst-Schreyer, or ihe 
Turkish Forest- Brawler and the French, Pie 
Grivelee.. Aldrovandus names it Merula Sax- 
atllis and Willughby calls it the C.aryocatac-- 
tes of Gesner and 'I'urncr , but, as Edwards ob- 
serves, Gesner has added the uame Nr.ciha^ij,- 
jii his Nomcnclator dc Avibiis. 

Biiffon,. who calls it the Casse NoIm, or 



Cracker of Nuts, says that it is distinguished 
from the Jays and Magpies by the shape of it's 
bill ; which is stralghter, blunter, and composed 
of two unequal pieces.' It's instinct is also 
different; for it prefers the residence of high 
mountains, and it's disposition is not so much 
tindlured with cunning and suspicion. How- 
ever, it is closely related to these two species 
of birds; and most authors, not fettered by 
their systems, have ranged it with the Javs 
and Magpies, and even with the Jackdaws, 
which are well known to bear a great analogy 
to the Magpies. But, remarks BufFon, it is 
asserted, that it chatters more than any of 

Klein distinguishes two varieties of the Nut- 
cracker: the one, speckled like the Stare, has 
a strong angular bill, and a long forked tongue, 
as in all the Magpies; the other is of interior 
size, and it's bill — for he says nothing of the 
plumage — is slenderer, more round, and com- 
posed of two unequal mandibles, the upper 
being longest, and it's tongue, which is divided 
deeply, is very short, and almost lost in the 
throat. Both birds eat hazel-nuts ; but the 



former breal^s them, and the latter bores them. 
These birds also feed on acorns, wild berries, 
the kernels of pine-tops, and even inse6ls ; and, 
like the Jays, the Magpies, and the Daws, 
they conceal what they cannot consume. 

The Nutcracker,'* says BufFon, " is re- 
markable for the triangular white spots which 
^re spread over it's whole body, except the 
head. These spots arc smaller on the upper 
part, and broader on the breast ; their efFe6t is 
the greater, as they are contrasted with the 
brown ground. These birds are most at- 
tached to mountainous situations. They are 
common in Auvergne, Savoy, Lorraine, 
Franchc-Compte, Switzerland, the Berga- 
masque, and in the Austrian mountains co- 
vered with forests of pine: they occur, also, 
in Sweden, though only in the southern parts 
of that country, and rarely elsewhere than in 
Smoland. Gerinire marks, that they are never 
seen in Tuscany. The common people in 
Germany, call them Turkey birds, Italian 
birds, or African birds ; which language only 
means, that they are foreign." Just as, in Eng- 


land, Buffon might ha-ve added, the vulgar 
call every foreigner a Frenchmaru 

** Though the Nutcrackers are not birds 
©f passage," observes BufFon, *' they fly 
sometimes from the mountains to the plains. 
In 1754, great flights of them entered France ; 
particularly. Burgundy, where there are few 
pines. They were so fatigued on their arri- 
val, that they suffered themselves to be caught 
by the hand. One was killed, m the OiS^ober 
of that same year,, at Mostyn, in Flintshire ^ 
which was supposed to have come from Ger- 
many ► We may remark ^ that this year was 
exceedingly arid and hot, which must have 
dried up most of the springs^ and much af- 
fedled those fruits on which the Nutcrackers 
xisually feed. Besides, as thev seemed,, on. 
their arrival, to be furnished, and were caught 
by almost every sort of bait, it is probable that 
they were constrained to abandon tiicir re- 
treats by the want of subsistence 

*-'^ One of tlie reasons, it is said, whr tlie* 
Nutcrackers do not settle and breed in the in- 
viting climates^ is tlic perpetual war wagcdi 



against them by the proprietors of the woods, 
for the injuries which they commit on tlic 
large trees, by piercing the trunks, like the 
Woodpeckers; part are, therefore, soon de- 
stroyed, and the rest forced to seek an asylum 
in the desart unprotected forests. Nor is this 
the only circumstance in which they resemble 
the Woodpeckers. They nestle, like them, 
■in holes of trees, which perhaps they have 
■themselves formed," observes BufFon; and in 
which case, he might have added, they are 
,literally Woodpeckers: the middle quills oi 
■the. tail being also even near the end, which 
demonstrates that they, as well as the Wood- 
peckers, clamber on trees. In short, Nature; 
-seems to have placed the Nutcrackers between 
the W oodpeckers and Jays ; and it is singular, 
that Will ughby has given them this precise ar- 
rangement in his Ornithology, though his 
description suggests no relation between these 
species. The irides of the Nutcracker arc of 
a hazel colour; the bill, the feet, and the 
nails, are black ; the nostrils are shaded with 
whitish feathers, straight, stilf, and projedling ; 
the feathers of the wings and tail are blackish, 
without spots, but terminated for the most part 



with white. There are, however, some vari- 
eiics in the dlfFerent individuals, and in the 
different descriptions ^ which seeirts to confirm 
the opinion of Klein, with regard to the twa 
races, or varieties, which he admits into the 
species of the Nutcrackers. 

*' We cannot tind,^ adds Buffon, *^ in 
writers of natural history, ariy details with 
respecl to their laying, their incubation, the 
tramhig of their young, the duration of their 
life, &e. for they haunt inaccessible spots, 
where they enjoy undisturbed safety and fe- 
licity." " \ 

It is singular, that Buffon has given to the 
Pipra-lManacus of Linnseus, or Black-Capped 
Manakin of Edwards and Latham, the name 
of Cassenoisette, or the Nutcracker; be- 
cause the cry of that bird is exacllv like the 
noise made by the small instrument withwhich 
we crack nutb.'' 


iHIS elegant little flower is represented, 
nearly 6f the natural size. It is a native of 
New South V/ales ; where it is said to spring 
up spontaneously, in the warmer seasons, and 
to be abundantly found in all soils. This 
spontaneous growth, however, can only be 
philosophieally considered, as arising from 
seed previously scattered by the hand of Na- 
ture, without the interference, or particular 
observation, of human art: since the do6lrIne 

' of spontaneous productions has been long 

\ since universally exploded. 

The beauty and simplicity of tliis plant is 
very peculiar not only from the triangular 
form, and chaste colouring of the flower,, but 
it's pleasing shell-like appearance, which has 
mduced us to denominate it tlie Purple Shell, 
Flower: a name which speaks to the imagi- 
nation, at least,, of every bc'iolder, a language 
more forcible than many of the austere terms 
given by the rigid botanist to simple produc- 


tlons of the vegetable world. The plant cer- 
tainly wears a conchiferous appearance : and, 
to this circumstance it owes the appellation by 
which we have thought proper to distinguish 
it; as we received this drawing, with many 
other exadt delineations of subjects from New 
South Wales, unaccompanied by any name 

We may here remark, that it has repeatedly 
struck intelligent persons, on viewing our col- 
lection of drawings from the plants of New 
South Wales, that numbers of them, and this 
is certainly one, have a great resemblance to 
those fanciful flowers which are frequently 
manufaClured by the ingenious artificial iiorists 
of Europe; some of which were, formerly, 
very often composed of shells. 


naturalist's pocket 



1. The crocodile. ^'^-^iSi: 



3. The angel FISH. 








This grand, fierce, and terrific animal* 
though it has four feet, seems to be rcje6lcd, 
bv most naturalists, from the quadruped race ; 
and placed at the head of a distinft class, under 
the general appellation of the Li/.ard kind. 
That there is much similarity between tlie 
Crocodile and the Lizard, as far as relates to 
their general forms, cannot possibly be dis- 
puted : but it is equally unquestionable that, 
in many particulars of even their rcspe6tivc 
conformations, there exists great manifest and 
essential distin6lion ; to say nothing of their 
habits and qualities, where still greater dif- 
ferences prevail. Nor can we omit to notice, 
on this occasion, the impropriety of taking tl:c 
name of a class, or genus, from the minor sj^e- 
cies, instead of tlic major ; and calling that tlic^ 
Lizard tribe, which should, in facl, if the affi- 
nity be allowed, have ralher been denominated 
the Crocodile tribe : for, aware as we are, 
that the same thing is done with respect to se- 
veral other generical classes, we arc decldedlv 
of opinion, that it forms a vice in natural 
history. The difnculty, indeed, of assigning 

piv| I- 


proper stations to the Crocodile and Lizard, 
in any regular system, has so far carried 
great men into opposite extreme?, that Ray 
exalts them both among Quadrupeds ; while 
even tlie acute Linnsus, by placing them 
among Serpents, degrades them into the rank 
of Reptiles. Brisson positively calls them, in 
spite of their four legs, a distia<ft class of Rep- 
tiles ; while Klein, on the other hand, deno- 
minates them Naked Quadrupeds. In short, 
from their scalv covering, and attachment to 
the water, some have given them to the Fishes ; 
\vhile others have even classed them with In- 
se6ls. In this last class, the ingenious Gold- 
smith seems willing to place tlie snialler kinds, 
of Lizards ; but he fesls sensible of the ab- 
surdltv, when he comes thus to marshal the 
Crocodile, exclaiming — a Crocodile would 
be a terrible insect, indeed i" 

When we consider, that Crocodiles are often 
thirty feet in length, and some Lizards not more 
than a single inch; if size, alone, were any 
rule in arranging the produdlions cf nature, 
which it certainly is not, we might wonder, 
with Scba, how they ever came to be cla,^sed 
togcilicr. or t!ic L'*i'ard species tl:crc is scarcely 



any end ; they have many different forms,, and 
hues yet more diversified : while the Crocodile 
has hardly any varieties. The ^imericans iisir 
ally call their Crocodile the Alligator ; by some 
it is named the Cayman ; and, in Brasil, Jacere. 
Still it is the same animal of different climates, 
with much less variation than climate alone 
coiTjmonly occasions. It is pretended, by 
some, that the body of the Alligator, or Cro- 
codile of the western world, is not so slender 
as that of the African and Asiatic Crocodile ; 
that it's nose, instead of resembling that of a 
greyhound, is indented like the nose of a lap- 
dog ; that it's swallow is not so wide ; that it's 
colours are daiker, beino^ black varied with 
white ; and, lastly, that it is less mischievous. 
These distindlions, liowever, by no means 
prevent the Crocodiles, of Africa, of Asia, and 
of America, from being fairly included under 
one general description, 

Tlie Crocodile is unknown in every part of 
Europe ; but inhabits most great rivers, and 
extensive lakes, in the othci: three (piarters ot 
the o-lobe. The Nile lias alwavs been famous 
for Crocodiles ; and the Niger, and River C)i 
the Amazon?, arc said to produce them in 



Still greater numbers, as vreil as of larger size. 
In. America, though they are largest and most 
numerous in the torrid zone, the continent 
abounds with them ten degrees more north. 

From the magnitude, strength, and terrific 
appearance, of this formidable amphibious ani - 
mal, it has often been noticed by ancient and 
modern travellers ; but few have contented 
themselves with publishing no more than thev 
knew. They beheld the Crocodile under cer- 
tain prejudices ; and have related, witlicut suf- 
ficient discriminations, not only what thev 
perceived, but \\hat thev had heard and read: 
and thus is the task of presenting a faithful 
and consistent history and description of tliis 
wonderful creature, like that of manv other 
curious and interesting subjetSls in nature, ren- 
dered prodigiously difficult; which might be 
accomplished with much case, and a far supe- 
rior degree of satisfa6lion, were clrcumspeaicMi 
and precision aKvavs duly regarded by original 

The Crocodile, when at it's largest growth, 
appears to be from twenty to thirtv feet long ; 
in northern situations, it seldom exceeds half 



that length. It's thickness, in the iTiiddlc of 
the body, is from the bulk of* a man to that ot 
a horse. The colour of the scales, or maiU 
with which it is covered, is sometimes a dark 
or dusky brown, with an admixture of grey; 
sometimes a reddish yellow ; and sometimes 
almost black : the under sides, including the 
tail, and insides of the limbs, being of a whit- 
ish citron, spotted on the sides, similar to the 
scales of the upper parts. Artists, however, 
availing themselves of the Lizard varieti^es, not 
unfrequently attire the Crocodile in green, 
green and yellow, &;c. according to the caprice 
of their respe61;ive fancies. Even our Green 
Dragon, the boasted vi6lim of St. George, tu- 
telar champion of England, has probably no. 
Qther origin than the Crocodile. 

, Catesby observes, that this animal cannot 
be more terrible in it's aspc6l, than it is for- 
midable and mischievous in it's nature: sparing 
neither man nor beast which it can surprize ; 
but pulling them under water, to kill them, 
that it may with greater facility, and without 
struggle or resistance, devour tlicm. As these, 
however, do not often come in it's way, it 
<;hiefly subsists on fish. In South Carolina^ 



being of an inferior size, it rarely attacks men 
or cattle, but is a great devourer of hogs. 
'* This destru6live animal," Catesby adds, 
by the close conne6lion of the joints of it*s 
vertebras, can neither swim nor run any other 
u-ay than straight forward ; and is, consequently, 
disabled from tuming with that agility which is 
requisite to catch it's prey by pursuit. It does 
it, therefore, by surprize, in the water as well 
as by land : for effedling which, nature seems 
in some measure to have recompensed it's 
want of agility, by giving it a power ot de- 
reiving and catching it's prey with a sagacity 
peculiar to itself, as well as by the outer form 
and colour o\ it's body, which on land re- 
sembles an old dirty log or tree, and in the 
water, where it frequently lays floating on the 
surface, it has a similar appearance ; through 
which, and it's silent artifice, fish, fowl, turtle, 
and all other aifimals, being deceived, are sud- 
denly caught and devoured." 

From what has been said respecting the 
Crocodile's want of agility in turning ; some 
have roundly asserted, that it could not turn at 
all: while others, convinced that it must be 
capable of turning, from the very nature of it's 



Structure, have taken the opposite side, and 
maintained that it wheels about with the utmost 
alertness ; which is, perhaps, equally remote 
from the truth. That it usually runs, or swims, 
in a right line, seems to be the fa6t ; but it ap- 
pears equally true, that it can turn, at pleasure, 
either on land or in the water, though with 
abundantly most celerity in it's favourite ele- 
ment. It preys, however, at land, where it 
pursues animals which it has wounded in the 
water ; and, during inundations, enters cot- 
tages, and attacks all it finds. Tigers, Sec. 
allured by their ardent thirst to the haunts of 
the Crocodile, often maintain terrible confli6ls, 
but seldom escape* Yet Labat asserts, that it 
is by no means uncommon for a negro, with 
only a knife in his right hand, and a cow's hide 
round his left arm, boldly to attack the Croco- 
dile, even in it's own element. By the Siamese 
it is taken alive in nets ; rendered motionless 
with loss of blood ; and afterwards tamed, for 
the diversion of the eastern grandees* Nor is 
Sianj the only place where the Crocodile forms 
an obje6l of savage grandeur; for^atSabi^on the 
Slave Coast, Philips says, there are two pondi 
near the royal palace^ for breeding Crocodiles, 

Just as carp are bred in purppp. 

...... V,. "la 


In the amphitheatre of ancient Rome, the 
Crocodile was one of the various conflicting 
animals. Of it's powers, some idea may be 
formed, from the following description of a 
horrid combat ^between two Crocodiles, which 
was seen, at a small distance, by Bartram, 
the American Traveller. ** Behold him,^' says 
he, ** rushing forth from the flags and reeds. 
His enormous body swells. His plaited tail, 
brandished high, floats on the lake. The 
waters, like a catara6t, descerid from his open- 
hig jaws. Clouds of smoke issue from his di- 
lated nostrils. The earth trembles with his 
thunder; when, immediately, from the oppo- 
site coast of the lagoon, emerges from the deep 
his rival champion. They suddenly dart on 
each other. The boiling surface of the lake 
marks their rapid course, and a terrific conflif^ 
commences. They now sink to the bottom, 
folded together in horrid wreaths. The water 
becomes thick and discoloLired. Again they 
rise ; their jaws clap together, re-ecchoing 
through the deep surrounding forests. Again 
they sink ; when the contest ends at the muddy 
bottom of the lake, and the vanquished makes 
a hazardous escape, hidmg himself in the 
muddy turbulent waters, and sedge, on a distant 



shore. The proud vi6tor, exulting, returns to 
the place of a£lion. The shores and forests 
resound his dreadful roar ; together with the 
triumphing shouts of the plaited tribe arotjnd, 
witnesses of the horrid combat.*' 

Our friend Bartram afterwards describes a 
Crocodile spe6tacle of still superior horror. 
*' How,** exclaims he, ** shall I express my- 
self, so as to convey an adequate idea of it to 
the reader, and at the same time avoid raising 
suspicions of my veracity ; should I say, that 
the river, in this place, from shore to shore, 
and perhaps near half a mile above and below 
me, appeared to be one solid bank of fish,, of 
various kinds, pushing through this narrow 
pass of St. Juan's into the little lake, in their 
return down the river ; and, that the Crocodiles 
were in such incredible numbers, and so close 
together, from shore to shore, that it would 
have been easy to have walked across on their 
heads, had the animals been harmless ! What 
expressions can sufficiently declare the shoek- 
hig scene that for some minutes continued, 
while this mighty army of fish were forcing 
the pass ! During this attempt, thousands—I 
may say, hundreds of thousands— were caught 


and swallowed by the devouring Crocodiles. 
The horrid noise of their closing jaws ; their 
plunging amidst the broken banks of fish, and 
rising, with their prey, some feet upright above 
the water ; the floods of water and blood rush- 
ing out of their mouths ; and the clouds of 
vapour issuing from their wide nostrils ; were 
truly frightful." 

Catesby says, ** it is to be adinired; that so 
vast an animal should at contained In 
an egg no bigger than that of a turkey." 
The female, according to Bartram, lays a 
floor of tempered mortar on the ground, com- 
posed of mud, grass, and herbage, on which 
she deposits a layer of eggs ; and, on this, a 
stratum of mortar seven or eight inches thick, 
and then another iaver of eggs : and, in this 
manner, from day to day, one stratum above 
another, till she has formed a nest or hillock, 
in the form of an obtuse cone, or hay- cock, 
four feet high, and four or nve feet diameter 
at the base, containing from one to two hun- 
dred ecrcrs. These are hatched bv the heat of 
the sun ; or, perhaps," remarks Eartram^ 
** the vegetable substance, mixed with the 
earth, being a£tcd on by the sun, may cause a 



small degree of fermentation, and so increase 
the heat in those hillocks.'* He is of opi- 
nion, that the female carefully watches her 
nest : for he is positive, that the young are not 
left to shift for themselves ; having had fre- 
quent opportunities of seeing tlie female Cro- 
codile lead about her young ones, which whine 
and bark like puppies, just as a hen does her 
brood of chickens. He admits, that few of a 
brood live to their full growth, because the old 
feed on the young as long as they can make 
prey of them. He mentions, however, having 
seen a female, with a long train of young ones 
swimming after her. The eggs are esteemed 
delicious ; and the Egyptians worshipped the 
Ichneumon for destroying them. But no ene- 
my is so fatal to the fecundity of the Crocodile 
as the Gallinazo Vulture ; which watches the 
female, from among the trees, and tears up her 
eggs the instant she retires. The flesh, which 
is eaten by the Indians, is delicately white ; but 
tastes and smells powerfully of musk. Catesby 
says that, in Carolina, Crocodiles lay torpid 
from 0(51:ober to March, in caverns and hol- 
lows; and, at their coming out in the spring, 
make a hideous bellowing noise. Their longe- 
vity, according to Aristotle, equals that cf mun. 



The annexed print represents a young Crc- 
codiie, in the possession of Mr. Michel, of 
Dover Street. It is three feet long, preserved in 
spirits, quite perfect, and bends with the greatest 
facility. The jaws open at right angles ; in 
consequence of a thick corrugated skin, which 
Stretches with the action. The tongue adheres 
immoveably in the middle, but may be raised 
up all round the edges. The ears are a sort of 
long, straight, horizontal lines, parallel with 
the eyes, and covered with an elastic skin, 
which draws up, and discloses the orifice ; be- 
ing, like the eyes, guarded above with protu- 
berant scales. The eyes are small, and covered 
with a nidlitating membrane. The fore feet 
have five, but tire hind feet only four, toes : 
the two outer toes, on each fore foot, it is re- 
markable, have no claws or nails ; all the rest 
have strong b'.ack claws, slightly incurvatcd. 
The general colour is a dusky, but not dark, 
yellowish brown, on the upper pr.rts of the 
body ; and, on the insides of the iimbs, and all 
the under parts, a lustrous ycliowivsh white. 
The protuberant scales, cr pieces of mail, are 
every where spotted, or clouded, with blotches 
of a dark hue ; which probably darkens with 
age in the living animal. 


IHIS beautiful and curious bird is the Para- 
disea Aurea of Gmelin ; the Sifilet, or Ma- 
nucode with Six Filaments, of BufFon; the 
Golden-Throated Bird of Paradise of Sonnerat ; 
and the Gold-Breasted Bird of Paradise, of 
most other nataralists. It appears to be pecu- 
liarly scarce; even Sonnerat saw not the bird 
alive, and BufFon acknowledges his descrip- 
tion to have been taken from a mutilated sub- 
je6l without either feet or wings. 

We learn from Sonnerat, to whom w-e owe 
both our figure and description, that this bird, 
which is'nearly the size of the common Dove, 
has a beautiful tuft of feathers springing from 
the upper mandible, blaclc at the base, and 
the rest black and white intermixed. Tlie 
upper part of the head, tlie checks, andbegiu'- 
ning of the throat, are of a fine black, shaded 
with violet. Behind tlie head, there is a gold- 
coloured band, similar to the plumage, of tlie 
neck a,nd breast; which is composed of long 



narrow feathers, black at their roots, of a red- 
dish cast upwards, and terminating in golden 
tips, but so thick as to present externally only 
a gold colour, varying in it's lustre with re- 
flections of green, red, or violet, and some- 
times all together, according to the degrees of 
light and shade in which the bird is viewed. 
The back is a deep black, with a slight tinge 
of violet ; and the tail and wings, which are 
al&o black, have a velvet gloss. From the 
under part of the wings proceed long black 
feathers pointing upwards, which embrace the 
wings when closed: tlie beards of these fea- 
thers are not united, but separated hke tliose 
of the ostrich. This bird is most peculiarly 
distinguished from all others of tlie genus, by 
three long filaments, which spring from each 
ride of the head, and extend to a fourth part of 
the length of the tall, terminating in oval webs. 
These are entirclv black; and the shafts, on 
a minute inspcclion, appear slightly bearded on 
one side. .Thev are, at their origin, very close 
to each other; but, diverging into an angular 
form, become distant at their extremities. 'I'he 
bill is of a clear black, and the irides are yel- 
low. The legs and feet are also black. 


Tins beautiful fish was deposited by the 
late Capt. Cook, in the Leveiian Museum; 
having been thus named by that great circum- 
navigator, who had caught it during one of 
his voyages to the South Seas. 

Though the figure, which is accurately 
dehncated, will afford a better idea than any 
description, it may not be improper to observe, 
that the body of this fish, which is about 
fourteen inches long, and ten wide, is wholly 
of a very dark olive green ; except the centre, 
whicli is of a deep yellow. The tail, as well 
as the small fins behind the gills, is of a deep 
orange red, tipped with yellow ; and tlie larger 
fins, the biggest of which is on the back, are 
of a dark olive green, similar to that of the 

The appellation of the Angel Fish has been 
given by many naturalists to a very different 
species, the Sonatina of Pliny, and known 



also by the name of the Monk Fish. But 
neither in it's form, nor it's habit?, are we 
enabled to trace the propriety of such a di- 
vine application of that fierce and voracious 
creature, unless we are to look for it's proto- 
type in the fallen host of angelic beings ; for 
it is universally described as having peculiar 
rnalignancy in it's aspedl ; the eves being ob- 
long, placed lengtiiway in the head, and over- 
hung by a skin. It grows sometimes to nearly 
a hundred weight ; preys chiefly on flat-fish ; 
and tears, in a terrible manner, such fishermen 
as incautiously lay hold of it. Perhaps, the 
intelligent reader, if he agree with us, rc- 
speftlng it's claim to the appellation of angelic, 
may also, with us, discover a stronger ana- 
logy to the Monk, than to the Angel, in these 
characteristic traits; without adverting to the 
cowl-like appendage which veils the eves, and 
from which it more obviouslv appears to have 
derived it's canonical denomination. 


naturalist's pocket 







2. The INDIAN BUSTARD, ^i^!^^^ 

3. The scarlet WOODBINE, OF NEW 






This singular and very curious animal, on h. 
first view of the figure, presents not to ar.y, 
spe6lator, unapnrized of it*s chara6ler, the 
smallest appearance of cither the Ox or Buf- 
falo kinds. It is, however, universally allowed, 
by naturlalists, to be of one or the other of 
these families : what occasions the deceptive- 
ness of the best representations, wc shall en~ 
deavour to explain in the course of our de- 

The Grunting Ox, or Bos Gruniens of Lin- 
naeus, is by some called tlie Grunting Cow , 
by others, the Buffalo with a horse's tail ; and, 
by BufFon, the Cow of Tartary* Wc have 
adopted the most common name, that of the 
Grunting Ox; without being satisfied, in our 
own minds, tliat cither Ox, Cow, or l^a]l, 
which are all sexual distin61:ions, can ever be 
properly applied, indiscriminately, to the ani 
mals, in general, of both sexes, To place 
the absurdity in it's true light, we need onl\ 
ask, what would be thounlu of any naturu 


lists who should, in describing the Arabian 
horses, for example, call them all the Geldings, 
or the Mares-, of Arabia? Yet these, in truth, 
would be no more improper, than it is to call a 
whole species, the Ox, or the Cow. We are 
not unaware that, in this respect, the language 
is itself defe£live : and, we may add, that it is 
very objeiftionable, with regard to similar dis- 
tinftions, in other animals ; particularly, tlie 
"dog, and the horse. The rectification would, 
perhaps, not be difficult ; but weighty autlio- 
rity might be necessary to render current the 
most judicious new terms, and we "vvillinglv 
leave the task to such adepts in philological 
enquiries, as have had the good fortune to ob- 
tain tlie reputation of possessing an extraordi- 
nary degree of j)rofound learning. 

Pennant, who appears to have taken con- 
siderable pains in his account of the Grunting 
Ox, describes it as having a short head; a 
broad nose; thick and hanging lips ; and large 
cars, beset with coarse bristly hairs> pointed 
lownwards, but not pendulous. The horns, 
on the authority of Mr. Bogle, a most inge- 
nious and observant traveller, who cf late 

GRtJNTrNG oiir..- 

years penetrated from India into Thibet, and 
for whose observation.'? the reader is referred 
to the Philosophical Transadlions, are stated 
to be short, slender, rounded, upright, and 
bending, and very sharp-pointed. They are 
placed reniote at their bases, between which 
the hair forms a long curling tuft : the hair in 
the middle of the forehead is radiated. The 
space between the shoulders is much elevated ; 
and, along the neck, there is a sort of mane, 
which extends,, sometimes, all along the back, 
entirely to the tail. The tail, which is this 
animaFs most obvious specific mark, to use 
Mr. Bogle's words, spreads out broad and 
long,, with flowing hairs, like that of a beau- 
tiful marc, of a most elegant silky texture, 
and of a glossy silvery colour." One or 
these beautiful tails, preserved in the Britlsli 
Museum, is full six feet in length. The 
whole body, and particularly the lower parts, 
as well as the throat and the neck, arc covered 
with hairs so exceedingly long as to conceal 
at least half the legs, and make them appear 
very short: to which circumstance wc may,, 
perhaps,, refer much of the deceptive appear- 
ance for which the figure of this animal is so- 


G R U X 1 I N O iJ X . 

remarkable. All the other parts of the body 
are covered with long hairs, like those of the 
He-Goat. The hoofs are large; and the 
false hoofs, which prcje£l greatly, are convor 
externally, and concave within. The colour 
of xho. head and body is usually black ; but 
the mane is of the same beautiful silvery hue. 
as the tail. The size of these animals hai 
been compared, by Pallas,, to that of a small 
domestic cow: but, as Pennant remarks, the 
growth of those which he saw, was probably 
checked bv their being brought very young, 
from tlieir native countrv into Siberia. Mr. 
Bogle speaks of them as. larger than the com- 
mon Thibet breed and Marco Polo,, a Vene- 
tian gentleman, who vIsitedTartarv, and most 
other distant countries, in the thirteenth cen~ 
tury, expressly says,, that the wild kind^ whicli 
he saw on his travels,, were nearly, as large as 
clepliants.. This, though it corresponds witli 
the account of Guiilaume Dc Rubniquis, a. 
Friar sent by Louis IX. or St. Louls^^ as Am- 
bassador to the Khan of I'aitary, in 1253^ 
and who wrote liis extensive Travels, which, 
he addressed to his Royal Master, may be 
bomcwhat exaggerated: nevertheless, from the 



length of the tail in the British Museum^ 
whicli probably did not reach the ground, no 
known figure of the animal ever representing 
the tail as descending qnite to the heels, it may 
be fairly inferred, that the Grunting Ox, some- 
times, at least, attains to an enormous size* 
In the New Memoirs of the Academy of Pe- 
tersburgh, M. Gmelin has given a descriptioa 
of this animal, which he saw alive in Siberia. 
Ic came from Calmuck,. and was about two 
and a half Russian ells in length. His de- 
scription, in general, corresponds with what 
Vvc have given. ** The excrements," he says^ 
are more solid than those of the Cow; and^ 
when tlie animal discharges uri-ne, it draws it's 
body backward.. It lows not like an Ox, h\^t 
grunts like a hog.. It is wild, and even fero- 
cious ; for, except the man from whom it re-. 
• eeives it's food, it gives blows with it's head to 
all wha come near.. The presence of domes- 
tic Cows i<t hardly suffers :. whenever it per- 
ceives one of them, it grunts, which it seldom 
does on any other occasion.'*" To this Gme- 
Ma adds, that it is the animal mentioned by 
Rubruquls, in his Travels ; and that there are 
two. species,, among the Calmucks, somewhat 



different in the head, horns, and tail, but of 
ihe same natural dispositions. 

** These animals,** says Pennant, in the 
time of Pubruquis and Marco Polo, were very 
frequent in the country of Tangut, the pre- 
sent seat of the Mongol Tartars, They were 
found both wild and domesticated. Thev are 
in these days more rare j but are met with in 
abundance, I believe, in both states,, in the 
kingdom of Thibet. Even when subjugated, 
they retain their fierce nature ; and are particu- 
larlv irritated at the sight of red, or anv gav 
colour. This rising anger is perceived bv the 
shaking their bodies, raising and moving their 
tails, and the menacing looks of their cvcs^ 
Their attacks are so sudden, and so rapid, that 
it is very difficult to avoid them* I'he wild 
breeds which is called Bucha,^ is verv tremen- 
dous : if, in the chace, thev are not slain on ihc 
spot, thev grow so furious from the wound, 
that they will pursue the assailant ; and, if thev 
overtake him, thev never desist tossing hlva 
on their horns into the air, as long as life re- 
mains, 'i'hcy will copulate with domesii*^ 
Cows. In the time of Marco Polo,, tills hali- 



breed was used for the plough, and for bearing 
of burdens, being more tradable than the 
others ; but even the genuine breed were so 
far tamed, as to draw the waggons of the No- 
mades, or wandering Tartars. To prevent 
mischief, the owners always cut off the sharp 
points of the horns. The tamed kinds vary 
in colour, to red and black, and some have 
horns white as ivory. There are two varieties 
of the domesticated kinds ; one called in the 
Mongol language, Ghainouk, the other Sar- 
lyk : the firsts of the original Thibet race ; 
the other, a degenerated kind. Many are also 
destitute of horns ; but have, on the front, in 
their place, such a thickness of bone, that it is 
with the utmost difficulty that tlie p-ersons em- 
ployed to kill them can knock them down 
Avith repeated blows of the ax. A bezoar is 
lid to be sometimes fbund in their stomachs, 
ill high esteem among the oriental nations. But 
the most valuable part of th<;m is the tail, 
which forms one of the four great articles of 
commerce in Thibet : these tails are sold at a 
high price ; and are mounted in silver handles, 
and used as Chowras, or Brushes, to chacc 
•away the flics. In India, no man of fashion 



ever goes, out, or sits in. form at home, with- 
out two .Chowrawbadars, or Brushers, attend- 
ing him, each furnished with an instrument of 
this kind. The tails are also fastened, by wav 
of ornament, to the ears of elephants ; and the 
Chinese dye the hair red, and form it into 
tufts, to adorn their summer bonnets. Fre- 
quent mention is made of these animals, in 
the sacred books of the Mongols ; the Cow 
being, with them, an obje6l of worship, as it 
it with most of tlie orientalists. Of tlie an- 
cients, -^lian is the only one who takes no- 
tice of this singular species. Amid his im- 
mense tarago of fables, he gives a very good 
account of it, under tlic name of " the Poe- 
phagus ; an Indian animai larger than a horse, 
Avith a most thick tail, and black, composed 
of hairs hner than the human. Iii':;hlv va- 
lued by the liulian ladies, for ornamenting their 
heads. Each hair," he says, was two cu- 
bits long. It was the most fearful of animals, 
and very swift. W'hen it was chaced, by men 
or dogs, and found itself nearly overtaken, it. 
Nvould face it's pursuers, and hide it's hind 
parts in some bush, and wait for them ; ima- 
gining that, if it coidd conceal it's tail, which 



; was the objedV they were in search of, it 
> would escape unhurt. The hunters shot at it 
with poisoned arrows; and, when they had 
slain the animal, took only the tail and hide, 
making no use of the flesh." 

BufFon roundly asserts that, in the whole 
description of this animal, there is only a sin- 
' gle chara6ler which indicates what he calls the 
I Calmuck Cows to be a particular species ; and 
I that is, their grunting instead of lowing. In 
! every other respe6t, he observes, they have so 
strong a resemblance to the Bison, that they 
must belong to the same species ; or, rather, to 
' ' the same race. Besides, though Gmelin says, 
^ that these Cows do not low, but grunt; he 
acknowledges, that they very rarely utter that 
^' sound. Perhaps, it was an afFe£lion peculiar 
" to the individual he saw ; for Rubruquis, and 
^ the other writers whom he quotes, do not men- 
' tion this grunting. Perhaps, the Bison, when 
enraged, likewise make a grunting noise. 
Even our Bulls, particularly in the rutting 
season, have a hollow, interrupted voice, 
which has a greater resemblance to grunting 
han to lowing. I am persuaded, therefore," 



ebnel-udes Bufron, " that this Grunting Cow 
of Graelin, is nQthing else but the Bison, 
tinA (ioes not constitute a particular species." 

To take the aecount of Gmelin only, when 
there are so many others ; and argue, with a 

perhaps," when he ought to have sought for 
the h^Sy which are so easily ascertained ; is 
not the most candid method of investigating 
truth. Surely, Buffon could be at no loss to 
know, that Rubruquis, though not in the par- 
cular passages which happen to be quoted by 
Gmelin, calls this animal, " Vacca Gruni- 
ens ;." or, " the Grunting Cow 1" 





This bird is the Otis Bens:alensis of Gme- 
lin ; the Churge, or Middle Indian Bustard, of 
BiifFon; the Pluvlalis Bengalensls Major, or 
Great Bengal Plover, of Brisson ; and the In- 
dian Bustard, of Edwards, Latham, and other 
naturalists. Edwards, \vho published in 175 1-, 
mentions that, he believes, we have hitherto 
no account of this bird, though it seems to 
be among the first which would attra6l the 
notice of a curious observer. Notwithstanding 
which hint, and our frequent intercourse with 
Jt^'s native country, there does not appear to 
have been any additional information obtained 
respedling it ; the most distinguished natura- 
lists seeming, in general, to have relied wholly 
on what is advanced by Edwards. 

Brisson, indeed, has been tempted to class it 
with the Plovers* But it is, as Buffon has de- 
monstrated, very insufficient for this purpose, 
to assert that the distinguishing chara6ter be- 
tween the Plovers, and the Bustards, consists 



in the form of the bill — which, in the latter, 
is an arched cone ; and, in the former, is 
straight, and enlarged near the extremity — for, 
in the Indian Plover, the bill is curved rather 
than straight ; and not at all swelling near the 
point, as in the Plovers : at least, so it is re- 
presented in a figure of Edwards, which Bris- 
son allows to be exa£l. I may add," savs 
BufFon, " that this property is more remark- 
able than in the Arabian Bustard of Edwards ; 
the accuracy of which figure is also admitted 
by Brisson, and yet he has not hesitated to 
class that bird with the Bustards/* 

The Indian Bustard, in fatTb, as BufFon adds, 
is four times the bulk of the largest Plover ; 
to say nothing of the total difference in it's 
appearance and proportions. 

It's height,'^ says Edwards, whose h- 
gure we have adopted, '* is calculated to be 
about twenty inches, in the a(5iion or posture 
in which it is drawn. It is a slimmer bird, 
having longer legs in proportion than any 
other bird of this genus I have yet seen. The 
tail is longer than in cur English Bustard, and 



of a whjtish colour. The eyes are large : 
the irides hazel-coloured ; and the eye-lids ash- 
coloured. The sides of the head, all round the 
eyes, are of a bright brown colour : the top of 
the head, and the whole neck, are covered with 
black feathers, hanging a little loose, with 
narrow points. The back,, rump, and tail, 
are of a bright brown. The feathers on the 
back have their middles black, with a small, 
powdering of the same colour on their brown 
parts. The tail has transverse bars of blacky 
with the like powdering on the intermediate 
brown bars. From the upper part of the 
back, the brown spotted with black passes 
. quite round the lower part of the neck before.. 
All the covert-feathers of the wings are white ; 
except tliat the smaller feathers about the 
joint, or band, are edged with black: the 
greater or outer quills, have their outer webs 
white, their tips gradually becoming of a dark 
ash- colour. The whole under side, from the 
transverse brown bar on the breast, to the co- 
Y,ert. feathers under the tail, is covered with 
black feathers. 'I'he legs arc long, and the 
toes short in proportion: they are void of fea- 
thers a pretty way above die knees. 'I'he toes 



are only three, all standing forward, as in all 
birds of the Bustard kind: they are covered 
with scales of a whitish colour. The claws 
are dusky.'* 

In Bengal, where this bird is a native, it is 
called Churge. The drawing was made in the 
East Indies : and, though not executed by Ed- 
wards, he believes it to be as genuine a piece 
as if he had drawn it himself from life. 

We may remark,'* says BufFon, that 
the climate of Bengal is nearly the same with 
that of Arabia, Abyssinia, and Senegal, where 
the Lohong, or Crested Arabian Buftard, and 
the African Bustard, are found ; and," he adds, 
we may term it the Middle Buftard, because 
it bolds the intermediate rank between the large 
and the small species," 



There can, we presume, be little obje6tion 
made, on any just ground, to the name of the 
Scarlet V/ oodbine, which we have given to 
this beautiful parasitical plant, the produdlion 
of New South Wales, 

Our figure, which is a faithful represen- 
tation of nature, bears too strong a family like- 
ness to be mistaken by the most cursory ob- 
server; though the flowers, which are full 
double the size figured, may be more bulky 
than the generality of our European Wood- 
bines, and certainly appear to grow less pro- 
fusely in clusters.. But, neither these circum^ 
stances, I'^r the great difference of colour, 
can be considered as forming any essential 
^enerical distindtion,. 

It grows plentifully in a light, sandV, or 
gravelly soil ; rises several feet in height ; and, 
winding among the shrubs,, bushes^ 6<c. some- 

' times^ 


times for a considerable distance, produces a 
most charming efFedl:, by it's crimson blush- 
ings, seen at intervals amid the green foliage 
which it entwines. 

We have been unable to learn, whether this 
plant any portion of that delicate 
fragrance which so peculiarly distinguishes 
the European Woodbines. 


naturalist's pocket 




N^ XL. 


1. The sloth. 
3. The walking-stick INSECT, 





'The Sloth, or Bradvpus of Linnsiis, is a 
genus of animals, die charad^eristics of wliicli 
are, that they have no fore-teeth in either jaw ; 
. that they have six grinders on both sides of 
each jaw, which arc cylindrical, and obliquely- 
cut off at the ends, the two foremost in each 
jaw being longer than tlie rest, and far distant 
from each other; and, that the body is covered 
•■with hair. Only three species appear to have 
been noticed by naturalists ; and, of these, one 
seems to us of very doubtful affinity, thougli 
Pennant, and other respe6lable naturalists, 
have classed in this family a five-toed qua- 
druped, under the name of Bradvpus Ursinus, 
or the Ursine Sloth. The two species adopted 
by LinnjEus, Buffon, Sec. who were probably 
unacquainted with the latter animal, which ap- 
pears to have been only lately noticed, are the 
A'f, Bradvpus Trida61ylus, or 'rhrcc-Tocd 
Sloth; and the Unau, Bradvpus DidavSlylus, 
or Two-Toed Sloth. 

Buffon, who treats of these two animals 
under one general head, has greatly confuted 



his account, and fallen inta some error. In- 
deed, his own general description of the two 
species, affords sufficient demonstration that 
they ought to have been severed. " Though," 
says h€, ** they resemble each other in manv 
respedtsj they differ, both externally and in- 
ternally, by characters so marked, that it is 
impossible not to recogni-se them as very dis- 
tinct species. The Unau, or Two-Toed 
Sloth^ has no tail, and only two claws on the 
fore- feet; the AT, or Three-Toed Sloth, has 
a tail, and three claws on all the feet. The 
muzzle of the former is longer, the front 
more elevated, and the ears more apparent^ 
than those of the latter. Their hair is also 
very different. The stru6lure and situation of 
some parts of their viscera are likewise dif- 
fcrent* But the most remarkable difference is 
derived from tliis singular circumstance, that 
the Unau has forty-six ribs, and the Ai only 
twenty-eight, which shews them to be species 
very remote from each other. This number 
of ribs in the body of an animal so sliort, 
is. an excess,, or error, of Nature ^ for no ani- 
mal,, however large, has such a number of 
ribs- The l^lcphaut has only forty, the Horse 


tliirty-six, the Badger tlilrtv, the Dog twenty- 
six, Man twenty-four, &:c. This difFerencc 
in the struclure of the Sloth indicates a greater 
distance between these two sj^ecics, than, be- 
tween the Dog and Cat, which have both the 
same number of ribs: for external diflerenccs 
are nothing, when compared to those which 
are internal ; the former may be regarded as 
causes, and the latter as effe6ls only. Tlie 
interior frame of animated beings is the foun- 
dation of Nature's plan; it is the constituent 
form, and the origin of all figure; but the ex- 
ternal parts are only the surface or drapery. 
How often have we not fomid, in the course 
of our comparative examination of animals,, 
that a very different external appearance co- 
vered internal parts pcrfecllv similar; and that* 
on the contrary, the slightest internal dis- 
tindlion produced great external differences, 
and changed the natural dispositions, powers, 
and qualities, of the animal ! How manv 
animalsarc armed, covered, and adorned, with 
excrescent parts, whose external stru£lure cor- 
responds exadlly with others which are totally 
deprived of such ap})endages ! But this,'* adds 
Buffbn, is not a place for such nice disqui- 

quisitions * 

sitions: we shall only remark that, in propor- 
tion as Nature is vivacious, active, and exalted, 
in the Monkey kind ; she is slow, restrained, 
and fettered, in the Sloth ." 

Our Sloth is figured from Edwards, who 
annexes, the following account — *' It is about 
the bigness of a large domestic Car. The 
specimen from which I drew it was a stuffed 
skin, set up in the attitude represented bv 
the figrure. The skin about the mouth was 
so close and hardened, that I could not dis- 
cover the teeth. The cars are very small, 
roundish, and wholly covered by the long hair 
on it's head. It lias no outward appearance 
of a tail. The head, which is pretty round, 
is covered with long hair on it's top, sides, 
and liindcr part, which hangs over the neck, 
as in the human species. The face, in front, 
has somewhat the appearance of a man's; 
and is covered with short hair, which tends 
outward all round, and meeting the hair of the 
head in opposite dire6lions, forms a little rising 
rounil the face, and appears like a mask. 
The skin was bare about the mouth, and of a 
reddish colour ; it was also reddish about the 



eves. The feet are covered with a bare red 
skin, and have each of them three very strong 
white nails or clav/s, pretty long, and mode- 
rately bent. The feet are flattish ; not divided 
into toes, but the nails arise immediately from 
the undivided feet. The arms, or fore legs, 
are longer than the hinder. Whether it had 
nipples on the breasts, like the Monkey, the 
thickness of the fur, and dryness of the skin, 
hindered me from discovering. It is covered 
all over with a thick, coarse hair, of a dark 
brown colour ; which appeared split andbroken, 
like weather-beaten hemp, and seemed to have 
been long under the force of tlic sun, winds, 
and rain. This animal was brought from 
Honduras, in America; and, I believe, Is found 
all over those parts of South America that arc 
not manv degrees distant from the cquIno(5\ial 
line. It was the property of the late Lord 
Peter. Tlie first author I can find, at present, 
who has mentioned this animal, is Gcsner; 
who has given a figure of it, pcrfciSi:ly like a 
Bear with a human head. The next is Chi- 
sius ; who has given a better figure of it, 
which he calls Ignavus. Nicrcmberg has co- 
pied the figures both of Gcsner and Clusius, 



and has added to them one of his own, Piso 
ha,-; given the skeleton of this animal, with a 
figure of it crawling like a toad ; and, in the 
frontispiece of his book, one climbing up a 
tree : he calls it *' Ai, sive Ignavus," and 
makes a major and a minor species. Dam- 
pier says — " The Sloth feeds on the leaves of 
trees, stripping one tree of it's leaves before it 
descends; and is so slow of motion, that it is 
almost starved before it can climb another 
tree, though the trees are near together." 
Don "Antonio De Ulloa savs that, in the coun- 
try about Porto-Bello, there is an animal," 
— I suppose," says Edwards, " our Sloth — 
*' called Perico Ligeie, or Nimble Peter: an 
ironical name, given it on account of it's ex- 
treme sluggishness and sloth. He is so lumpish 
as not to stand in need of either chain or 
hutch ; for he never stirs till compelled by 
hunger, and shews no manner of apprehen- 
sion either of men or wild beasts. His food 
is generally wild fruits; and when he can find 
none on the ground, he looks out for a tree 
well loaded, which with much pain he climbs, 
and in order to save himself the trouble of a 
second ascent, plucks off all the fruit, and 


S L O T H . 

throws it on the ground^ and to avoid the pain 
of descending the tree, forms himself into a 
ball, and drops from the branches. At the 
foot of this trcCj he continues till all the fruit 
it consumed ; never stirrings till hunger forces 
him to seek for more.'^ Klein, in his History 
of Quadrupeds/^ concludes Edwards, has 
given the last original £gure of it; except this 
of mine, which differs from all the foregoing 
figures, and wlll^ I believe, be found more 
corredl than most of them. All the figures I 
have yet seen, extend the hair on the feet quite 
to the nails ;: which is contrary to it's nature." 

Pennant remarks that, though, the Sloth 
preserved in the British Museum, and which 
he takes to be a young one, is only twelve 
inches long, the animal, according to Nieu- 
hofF, grows to the bulk of a middle-sized Fox. 
It has, he says, a mere stump of a tail ; long 
thick legs, aukwardly placed ; with' three toes, 
and three very long claws on cacli foot. " It's 
motion," says Pennant, '■' is attended with a 
most moving and plaintive crv, which, at once 
produces pity and disgust, and is it's onlv de- 
fence ; for every beast of prey is so atfc^led by 



the noise, as to qui: it with hoiTor. lis note, 
according to Kircher, is an ascending and 
descending hexachord, which it utters only bv 
night. It's look is so piteous, as to move 
compassion ; it is also accompanied with tears, 
wdiich dissuade every body from injuring so 
wretched a being. It's abstinence from food 
is remarkably powerful ; one that had fastened 
itself by it's feet to a pole, and was so su- 
spended across two beams, remained forty davs 
without meat, drink, or sleep. • Tlie strength 
in it's feet is so great, that there is no possibi- 
lity of freeing any thing from it's claws, which 
it happens to seize on. A dog was let loose 
at the above-mentioned animal, when it was 
taken from the pole; after sometime, the Sloth 
laid hold of the dog with it's feet, and held 
him four davs, till he perished with hunger." 

The Sloth is said to brins: fortli but a single 
voung one at a birtl^, which she carries on her 
back ; and, according to ButVon, instead of 
three distindl apertures for tl\e discharge of 
urine and excrements, and for the purposes of 
generation, this animal has but one, which ter- 
minates in a common canal, as in birds. 


I J. HIS very grand and beautiful bird Is the 
IPsittacus Sinensis of Linn^us, the Green Par- 
rot of Buffon, the.^ Great Green Parrot of 
Sonnerat, and the Green and Red Chinese 
Parrot 8£ Edwards and Latharrt. It is, as 
Edwards observes, one of the largest species 
of Parrots, being the size of a middling hen. 
The upper mandible of the bill is red at it's 
base, and inclining to yellowish at it's point; 
\Vhich is pretty much hooked, and has an 
angle on each side: the lower mandible is 
black. The nostrils are placed between the 
feathers of the head and the base of the bill ; 
it having no skin, or cere, over the base, as is 
common" in most of the Parrot kind. It is 
also singular, in having the feathers continued 
close. to the eyes; Parrots, generally, having 
a space of skin devoid of feathers round their 
eyes. The circles round the eyes are of a 
bright orange colour. The head, neck, back, 
covert-feathers of the wings, breast, belly, and 
tipper side of the tail, are all of a fine full 
green. The sides, under the wings, and the 
inner covert-feathers of the winp^s, arc red : 



■which redness, on the sides, appears outwardly- 
down the sides of the breast and belly. The 
greater quills, or beam feathers of - the wings, 
are of a fine blue; as well as those of the 
first row of covert-feathers above them: the 
edge^ or border, of the wing, above, that falls 
on the breast, is also blue. The inside of the 
quills, and the under side of the tail ; are of a 
dark brown or blackish colour. The tips of 
the tail-feathers, on the under side, are of a 
yellowish brown. The thighs, and coverts 
beneath the tail, 'are green ; and the legs, feet, 
and claws, are black. The toes are two for- 
wards, and two backwards, as in all other 
Parrots. " I take it,'* says Edwards, to be 
as-rare a Parrot as any I have met with; it bc- 
ing .tJ»e only one I have seen of it's kind.'* 
Our ji^ure was drawn by that celebrated na- 
turalist, froni^ihc living bird. 

"--BufFon remark?, that this Parrot is fcxind, in 
the MoIucc?.s, and- in New Guinea, as well as 
in China; of which last countrv, he asserts, 
it onlv inhabits the most southern provinces, 
such as Quanton and Qnangsi, which are near 
the tropic, the usual limit of the climate of 


In this tribe of inserts there appear to be 
several families, considerably varying from 
each other. They are called Walking-Sticks, 
and WQ have not the smallest inclination to 
^iiarrei with the name ; thoiigh they might, 
certainly, have been raor^ specifically denomi- 
natedr -according to the peculiar species of 
Cane which they "respeckively most resemble. 

The animal which we have figvired, w'as 
drawn by Edwards, from the real inse6c; who 
says — " It is so much like a dry stick, that it 
is supposed to deceive birds, and other animals 
that prey on inserts. The thicker part of the 
insert, nearest the head, where the six legs are 
placed, is full of little pr-igkles, or thorns, Vik^ 
what arc observed on the branches of many 
sorts of shrubs and trees. The head resembles 
that of a Locust with two horns. It is di- 
vided Into joints the whole length of the bodv ; 
but the last joint, or division, which is the tail, 
s only half round, and hollow, appearing like 
:hc bark peeled off a stick. This was of a 



greenish brown colour; "though I apprehend 
that they are at first greener, and change gra- 
dually with age and the seasons, so as always 
to be nearly the colour of the earth, grass, or 
shrubs, on which thev live. Tiiere are many 
different species of this insect, both in the 
old-discovered world and in America. Pe- 
tiver, in his Gazcphvlacium, has given a 
figure of a species different from mine; which 
he calls, a Small Brasilian Quill Locust, 
called there Arumatia. It is greenish, with 
spotted legs: the body is like a birchen twig, 
loner and slender. Marcgrave has oriven two 
different species of this insect. See his Na- 
tural History of Brasil, page 251." 

This insect came from the Cape of Good 
Hope, and was about an inch longer than is 
represented in our figure.